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Gene Review

HAMP  -  hepcidin antimicrobial peptide

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HEPC, HFE2B, Hepcidin, LEAP-1, LEAP1, ...
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Disease relevance of HAMP


High impact information on HAMP

  • Hepcidin, a peptide hormone (HAMP; OMIM 606464), seems to act in the same regulatory pathway as HFE [7].
  • Although expression of mouse Hamp is normally greater during iron overload, Hfe-/- mice have inappropriately low expression of Hamp [7].
  • Increased serum concentrations of the hepcidin precursor prohepcidin were paralleled by a decreased expression of the iron exporter ferroportin in circulating monocytes of ACD patients [8].
  • It is most often caused by mutations in the HJV gene and rarely in the HAMP gene [9].
  • These results revealed that mutations in HAMP might increase the phenotypic expression of the pC282Y/pC282Y genotype [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of HAMP


Biological context of HAMP


Anatomical context of HAMP


Associations of HAMP with chemical compounds


Other interactions of HAMP

  • RESULTS: The overall level of hepatic HAMP expression in human and murine HFE-related hemochromatosis is impaired but can still be modulated by iron stores [2].
  • Moreover, we demonstrate an HFE-independent correlation between the expression of HAMP and TFR2 in mouse and human livers [2].
  • Juvenile GH is a rare condition related principally to mutations of the HJV gene coding for hemojuvelin, and rarely to mutations of the HAMP gene coding for hepcidin [20].
  • Ferroportin and TFR2 mutations also cause HH, and two HAMP mutations have recently been reported that causes juvenile haemochromatosis (JH) in the homozygous state [13].
  • IL-1 and IL-6, which are important in HAMP augmentation in hepatocytes, also did not affect HAMP expression in alveolar macrophages [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HAMP

  • Animal models indicate that the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin (HAMP; OMIM 606464) is probably a key regulator of iron absorption in mammals [21].
  • In this study, using random and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified the distal helix, AS-2, as the component of the HAMP domain that stabilizes FAD binding [19].
  • By electrophoretic mobility shift assay we demonstrated that one putative C/EBP element found in the human HEPC promoter (-250/-230) predominantly bound C/EBPalpha from rat liver nuclear extracts [22].
  • RESULTS: A total of 164 maxillary molars were examined, providing 328 interproximal furcations; 111 (33.8%) furcations were determined at surgical debridement to have a furcation invasion of Hamp degree 1 or greater [23].
  • The authors conclude that PLTR from a living donor is a promising therapeutic alternative to liver transplantation from a cadaver [24].


  1. Hepcidin in iron overload disorders. Papanikolaou, G., Tzilianos, M., Christakis, J.I., Bogdanos, D., Tsimirika, K., MacFarlane, J., Goldberg, Y.P., Sakellaropoulos, N., Ganz, T., Nemeth, E. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Iron stores modulate hepatic hepcidin expression by an HFE-independent pathway. Gehrke, S.G., Herrmann, T., Kulaksiz, H., Merle, U., Bents, K., Kaiser, I., Riedel, H.D., Stremmel, W. Digestion (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Anemia of inflammation: the hepcidin link. Roy, C.N., Andrews, N.C. Curr. Opin. Hematol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The HAMP Domain Structure Implies Helix Rotation in Transmembrane Signaling. Hulko, M., Berndt, F., Gruber, M., Linder, J.U., Truffault, V., Schultz, A., Martin, J., Schultz, J.E., Lupas, A.N., Coles, M. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity. Krause, A., Neitz, S., Mägert, H.J., Schulz, A., Forssmann, W.G., Schulz-Knappe, P., Adermann, K. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Hepcidin and iron-related gene expression in subjects with Dysmetabolic Hepatic Iron Overload. Barisani, D., Pelucchi, S., Mariani, R., Galimberti, S., Trombini, P., Fumagalli, D., Meneveri, R., Nemeth, E., Ganz, T., Piperno, A. J. Hepatol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Constitutive hepcidin expression prevents iron overload in a mouse model of hemochromatosis. Nicolas, G., Viatte, L., Lou, D.Q., Bennoun, M., Beaumont, C., Kahn, A., Andrews, N.C., Vaulont, S. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Dysregulated monocyte iron homeostasis and erythropoietin formation in patients with anemia of chronic disease. Theurl, I., Mattle, V., Seifert, M., Mariani, M., Marth, C., Weiss, G. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Severe hemochromatosis in a Portuguese family associated with a new mutation in the 5'-UTR of the HAMP gene. Matthes, T., Aguilar-Martinez, P., Pizzi-Bosman, L., Darbellay, R., Rubbia-Brandt, L., Giostra, E., Michel, M., Ganz, T., Beris, P. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. HAMP as a modifier gene that increases the phenotypic expression of the HFE pC282Y homozygous genotype. Jacolot, S., Le Gac, G., Scotet, V., Quere, I., Mura, C., Ferec, C. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The IL-6- and lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of hepcidin in HFE-, transferrin receptor 2-, and beta 2-microglobulin-deficient hepatocytes. Lee, P., Peng, H., Gelbart, T., Beutler, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Disrupted hepcidin regulation in HFE-associated haemochromatosis and the liver as a regulator of body iron homoeostasis. Bridle, K.R., Frazer, D.M., Wilkins, S.J., Dixon, J.L., Purdie, D.M., Crawford, D.H., Subramaniam, V.N., Powell, L.W., Anderson, G.J., Ramm, G.A. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Digenic inheritance of mutations in HAMP and HFE results in different types of haemochromatosis. Merryweather-Clarke, A.T., Cadet, E., Bomford, A., Capron, D., Viprakasit, V., Miller, A., McHugh, P.J., Chapman, R.W., Pointon, J.J., Wimhurst, V.L., Livesey, K.J., Tanphaichitr, V., Rochette, J., Robson, K.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A homozygous HAMP mutation in a multiply consanguineous family with pseudo-dominant juvenile hemochromatosis. Delatycki, M.B., Allen, K.J., Gow, P., MacFarlane, J., Radomski, C., Thompson, J., Hayden, M.R., Goldberg, Y.P., Samuels, M.E. Clin. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Regulatory effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 on HAMP expression in iron loaded rat hepatocytes. Dzikaite, V., Holmström, P., Stål, P., Eckes, K., Hagen, K., Eggertsen, G., Gåfvels, M., Melefors, O., Hultcrantz, R. J. Hepatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Hepcidin expression and iron transport in alveolar macrophages. Nguyen, N.B., Callaghan, K.D., Ghio, A.J., Haile, D.J., Yang, F. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The spectrum of antimicrobial peptide expression at the ocular surface. McIntosh, R.S., Cade, J.E., Al-Abed, M., Shanmuganathan, V., Gupta, R., Bhan, A., Tighe, P.J., Dua, H.S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of transepithelial transport of iron by hepcidin. Mena, N.P., Esparza, A.L., Núñez, M.T. Biol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic analysis of the HAMP domain of the Aer aerotaxis sensor localizes flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding determinants to the AS-2 helix. Ma, Q., Johnson, M.S., Taylor, B.L. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The evaluation of hyperferritinemia: an updated strategy based on advances in detecting genetic abnormalities. Aguilar-Martinez, P., Schved, J.F., Brissot, P. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutant antimicrobial peptide hepcidin is associated with severe juvenile hemochromatosis. Roetto, A., Papanikolaou, G., Politou, M., Alberti, F., Girelli, D., Christakis, J., Loukopoulos, D., Camaschella, C. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. C/EBPalpha regulates hepatic transcription of hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide and regulator of iron metabolism. Cross-talk between C/EBP pathway and iron metabolism. Courselaud, B., Pigeon, C., Inoue, Y., Inoue, J., Gonzalez, F.J., Leroyer, P., Gilot, D., Boudjema, K., Guguen-Guillouzo, C., Brissot, P., Loréal, O., Ilyin, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Clinical reliability of the "furcation arrow" as a diagnostic marker. Deas, D.E., Moritz, A.J., Mealey, B.L., McDonnell, H.T., Powell, C.A. J. Periodontol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Partial liver transplantation from a living donor: experimental research and clinical experience. Kawarasaki, H., Iwanaka, T., Tsuchida, Y., Kanamori, Y., Tanaka, K., Utsuki, T., Komuro, H., Chen, C.L., Kawasaki, S., Ishizone, S. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1994) [Pubmed]
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