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Gene Review

RARG  -  retinoic acid receptor, gamma

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: NR1B3, Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group B member 3, RAR-gamma, RARC, Retinoic acid receptor gamma
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Disease relevance of RARG


High impact information on RARG


Biological context of RARG


Anatomical context of RARG


Associations of RARG with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of RARG

  • This RAR-binding activity represented in part the expression of RAR alpha and RAR gamma genes, whose transcripts were expressed in similar abundance in undifferentiated NHEK [24].
  • A common ligand-binding pocket, involving predominantly hydrophobic residues, is inferred by homology modelling of the human RXR alpha and glucocorticoid receptor ligand-binding sites according to the RAR gamma holo-LBD structure [25].

Regulatory relationships of RARG


Other interactions of RARG

  • As a consequence, the RAR beta and RAR gamma receptors appear to adopt a constitutively closed helix 12 conformation in the absence of hormone that may approximate the conformation of RAR alpha when bound to hormone agonist [12].
  • These results suggest that RARgamma mediates the effects of RA on the cell growth both in monolayer culture and in semisolid medium possibly through AP-1 suppression [4].
  • Thus, altered expression of CRABP-II appears more likely to regulate the cutaneous actions of RA than does altered expression of CRABP-I, RXR, or RAR-gamma isoforms [31].
  • In contrast to RA (which activates RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors in HL-60 cells with its metabolite retinoids), a retinoid that selectively binds RAR-gamma, which is not expressed in HL-60 cells, was relatively ineffective in causing ERK2 activation [32].
  • Furthermore, RARgamma and RXRalpha were polyubiquitinated in intact cells [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RARG


  1. Potential role for retinoic acid receptor-gamma in the inhibition of breast cancer cells by selective retinoids and interferons. Fanjul, A.N., Bouterfa, H., Dawson, M., Pfahl, M. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Cross-resistance to the synthetic retinoid CD437 in a paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line is independent of the overexpression of retinoic acid receptor-gamma. Kumar, A., Soprano, D.R., Parekh, H.K. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The ligand binding domain of the human retinoic acid receptor gamma is predominantly alpha-helical with a Trp residue in the ligand binding site. Lupisella, J.A., Driscoll, J.E., Metzler, W.J., Reczek, P.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Implication of retinoic acid receptor gamma in squamous differentiation and response to retinoic acid in head and neck SqCC/Y1 squamous carcinoma cells. Oridate, N., Esumi, N., Lotan, D., Hing, W.K., Rochette-Egly, C., Chambon, P., Lotan, R. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpression of the retinoic acid receptor gamma directly induces terminal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells. Moasser, M.M., Reuter, V.E., Dmitrovsky, E. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Suppression of retinoic acid receptor-beta in premalignant oral lesions and its up-regulation by isotretinoin. Lotan, R., Xu, X.C., Lippman, S.M., Ro, J.Y., Lee, J.S., Lee, J.J., Hong, W.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Ultraviolet irradiation of human skin causes functional vitamin A deficiency, preventable by all-trans retinoic acid pre-treatment. Wang, Z., Boudjelal, M., Kang, S., Voorhees, J.J., Fisher, G.J. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Suppression of retinoic acid receptor beta in non-small-cell lung cancer in vivo: implications for lung cancer development. Xu, X.C., Sozzi, G., Lee, J.S., Lee, J.J., Pastorino, U., Pilotti, S., Kurie, J.M., Hong, W.K., Lotan, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylation by p38MAPK and recruitment of SUG-1 are required for RA-induced RAR gamma degradation and transactivation. Giannì, M., Bauer, A., Garattini, E., Chambon, P., Rochette-Egly, C. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Chromosomal assignment of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) genes in the human, mouse, and rat genomes. Mattei, M.G., Rivière, M., Krust, A., Ingvarsson, S., Vennström, B., Islam, M.Q., Levan, G., Kautner, P., Zelent, A., Chambon, P. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Male-to-male transmission in Laurin-Sandrow syndrome and exclusion of RARB and RARG. Kjaer, K.W., Hansen, L., Eiberg, H., Christensen, K.S., Opitz, J.M., Tommerup, N. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Isotype-restricted corepressor recruitment: a constitutively closed helix 12 conformation in retinoic acid receptors beta and gamma interferes with corepressor recruitment and prevents transcriptional repression. Farboud, B., Hauksdottir, H., Wu, Y., Privalsky, M.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. RAR gamma 2 expression is regulated through a retinoic acid response element embedded in Sp1 sites. Lehmann, J.M., Zhang, X.K., Pfahl, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression and up-regulation of retinoic acid receptor-beta is associated with retinoid sensitivity and colony formation in esophageal cancer cell lines. Xu, X.C., Liu, X., Tahara, E., Lippman, S.M., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Multiple members of the retinoic acid receptor family are capable of mediating the granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells. Robertson, K.A., Emami, B., Mueller, L., Collins, S.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Retinoic acid inhibition of IL-1-induced IL-6 production by human lung fibroblasts. Zitnik, R.J., Kotloff, R.M., Latifpour, J., Zheng, T., Whiting, N.L., Schwalb, J., Elias, J.A. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Tissue-specific distribution of a novel C-terminal truncation retinoic acid receptor mutant which acts as a negative repressor in a promoter- and cell-type-specific manner. Matsui, T., Sashihara, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Ubiquitin/proteasome pathway regulates levels of retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha in human keratinocytes. Boudjelal, M., Wang, Z., Voorhees, J.J., Fisher, G.J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Abnormal expression of retinoic acid receptors and keratin 19 by human oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Hu, L., Crowe, D.L., Rheinwald, J.G., Chambon, P., Gudas, L.J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased retinoic acid responsiveness in lung carcinoma cells that are nonresponsive despite the presence of endogenous retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta by expression of exogenous retinoid receptors retinoid X receptor alpha, RAR alpha, and RAR gamma. Wan, H., Hong, W.K., Lotan, R. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Genomic organization of the retinoic acid receptor gamma gene. Lehmann, J.M., Hoffmann, B., Pfahl, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. A retinoic acid receptor-specific element controls the retinoic acid receptor-beta promoter. Hoffmann, B., Lehmann, J.M., Zhang, X.K., Hermann, T., Husmann, M., Graupner, G., Pfahl, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Establishment and characterization of cell lines from three human thyroid carcinomas: Responses to all-trans-retinoic acid and mutations in the BRAF gene. Koh, C.S., Ku, J.L., Park, S.Y., Kim, K.H., Choi, J.S., Kim, I.J., Park, J.H., Oh, S.K., Chung, J.K., Lee, J.H., Kim, W.H., Kim, C.W., Cho, B.Y., Park, J.G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Retinoic acid receptors as regulators of human epidermal keratinocyte differentiation. Vollberg, T.M., Nervi, C., George, M.D., Fujimoto, W., Krust, A., Jetten, A.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. A canonical structure for the ligand-binding domain of nuclear receptors. Wurtz, J.M., Bourguet, W., Renaud, J.P., Vivat, V., Chambon, P., Moras, D., Gronemeyer, H. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. 9-Cis retinoic acid inhibits growth of breast cancer cells and down-regulates estrogen receptor RNA and protein. Rubin, M., Fenig, E., Rosenauer, A., Menendez-Botet, C., Achkar, C., Bentel, J.M., Yahalom, J., Mendelsohn, J., Miller, W.H. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of TNF-alpha and retinoic acid on the proliferation of the clear cell and chromophilic types of human renal cell carcinoma in vitro. Gerharz, C.D., Ramp, U., Reinecke, P., Ressler, U., Dienst, M., Marx, N., Friebe, U., Engers, R., Pollow, K., Gabbert, H.E. Anticancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. The A/B domain of truncated retinoic acid receptors can block differentiation and promote features of malignancy. Aneskievich, B.J., Fuchs, E. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Transcriptional control of epidermal growth factor receptor by retinoic acid. Zheng, Z.S., Polakowska, R., Johnson, A., Goldsmith, L.A. Cell Growth Differ. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Mass-spectrometric analysis of agonist-induced retinoic acid receptor gamma conformational change. Peterson, V.J., Barofsky, E., Deinzer, M.L., Dawson, M.I., Feng, K.C., Zhang, X.K., Madduru, M.R., Leid, M. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential regulation of retinoic acid receptors and binding proteins in human skin. Elder, J.T., Aström, A., Pettersson, U., Tavakkol, A., Griffiths, C.E., Krust, A., Kastner, P., Chambon, P., Voorhees, J.J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Retinoic acid induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase-dependent MAP kinase activation needed to elicit HL-60 cell differentiation and growth arrest. Yen, A., Roberson, M.S., Varvayanis, S., Lee, A.T. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Derivation and characterization of retinoid-resistant human embryonal carcinoma cells. Moasser, M.M., Khoo, K.S., Maerz, W.J., Zelenetz, A., Dmitrovsky, E. Differentiation (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. A zebrafish retinoic acid receptor expressed in the regenerating caudal fin. White, J.A., Boffa, M.B., Jones, B., Petkovich, M. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Activation of retinoic acid receptor alpha is sufficient for full induction of retinoid responses in SK-BR-3 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Schneider, S.M., Offterdinger, M., Huber, H., Grunt, T.W. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Retinoid receptor expression and its correlation to retinoid sensitivity in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia blast cells. Lehmann, S., Paul, C., Törmä, H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Regulation of retinoic acid receptor expression in dermal fibroblasts. Tsou, H.C., Lee, X., Si, S.P., Peacocke, M. Exp. Cell Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
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