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Gene Review

LIN7A  -  lin-7 homolog A (C. elegans)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: LIN-7A, LIN7, Lin-7A, MALS-1, MALS1, ...
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Disease relevance of LIN7A

  • These results identify the LIN-7 PDZ protein as a marker of cell adhesion maturity and cell invasion and indicate that instability and disorganisation of cadherin-mediated junctions rather than reduced expression of cadherin-catenin system components are required to promote migration and invasiveness in glioblastoma cell lines [1].
  • RESULTS: MR proved better than CT at identifying obliteration of the pharyngobasilar fascia, invasion of the sinus of Morgagni, through which the cartilaginous portion of the eustachian tube and the levator veli palatini muscle pass, invasion of the skull base, and metastases to lymph nodes in the carotid and retropharyngeal spaces [2].
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the previously unreported tendinous insertion of the anterolateral fibers of the levator veli palatini (levator) and discuss possible implications for levator function and cleft palate repair [3].
  • This investigation indicates that a large cavum veli interpositi in the newborn has no relation to hydrocephalus or cerebral atrophy [4].
  • Since 1994, the authors have used the position of the levator veli palatini musculature to determine type of surgical intervention recommended for the management of velopharyngeal insufficiency [5].

Psychiatry related information on LIN7A


High impact information on LIN7A

  • Mutations in genes encoding components of the highly conserved MALS/CASK/Mint-1 complex cause presynaptic defects [8].
  • Synaptic transmission regulated by a presynaptic MALS/Liprin-alpha protein complex [8].
  • Here we identify a biochemical and functional link between these two complexes that is mediated by Par6 and PALS1 (proteins associated with Lin7) [9].
  • Thus, the stability and localization of DLG1 to cell-cell junctions are complex functions determined by the expression and association of particular Stardust family members together with particular LIN7 family members [10].
  • We have solved the solution structure of the heterodimer composed of the L27 domains from LIN-2 and LIN-7 [11].

Biological context of LIN7A

  • The complete cDNA sequence of VAM-1, tissue distribution of its mRNA, genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and Veli-1 binding properties are presented [12].
  • Mutagenesis of hLin-7 unveiled a second domain, KID, that binds to the kinase region of ErbBs [13].
  • The genomic organization of two extracellular invertase genes from tomato (Lin5 and Lin7), which are linked in a direct tandem repeat, and their tissue-specific and hormone-inducible expression are shown [14].
  • No difference was found for the muscles of mastication, levator and tensor veli palatini muscles, styloglossus muscle, genioglossus muscle, intrinsic muscles of the tongue, digastric muscles, mucosal surface of the lateral and posterior pharyngeal wall, uvula, valleculae, parapharyngeal space and larynx [15].
  • Oral air pressure and nasal air flow rate on levator veli palatini muscle activity in patients wearing a speech appliance [16].

Anatomical context of LIN7A

  • Our results therefore suggest that VAM-1 may function by promoting the assembly of a Veli-1 containing protein complex in neuronal as well as epithelial cells [12].
  • Thus, MALS is a partner of IRSp53 anchoring the actin-based membrane cytoskeleton at cell-cell contacts [17].
  • However, only the astrocytes and T98G cells generated and maintained mature adhesive junctional domains to which LIN-7 was recruited [1].
  • We could demonstrate that the ear click occurred during contraction of the tensor veli palatini, which opens the eustachian tube [18].
  • Lin7-negative (Lin7NEG) cells were analyzed in peripheral blood (PB, n = 9), mobilized PB (MPB, n = 5), umbilical cord blood (UCB, n = 5), and marrow aspirates (BM, n = 4) by flow cytometry [19].

Associations of LIN7A with chemical compounds

  • The PDZ domain of MALS selectively binds to peptides terminating in E-T/S-R/X-V/I/L, which corresponds to the C terminus of NMDA type 2 receptors and numerous other ion channels at the PSD [20].
  • In cultured hippocampal neurons, MALS proteins are clustered together with PSD-95 and NMDA type glutamate receptors, consistent with a postsynaptic localization for MALS proteins [20].
  • Hemisectioning the tegmentum close to the anterior border of the isthmic nucleus, transection of the caudal tectal commissure and decussatio veli, or electrical lesioning of the anterodorsal tegmental nucleus all resulted in a moderate decrease in the density of GABA-positive fibers [21].
  • Groups II and V received flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) from the fruits of two varieties of Musa paradisiaca, Palayamkodan and Rasakadali respectively from normal background radiation area (Veli) and treated as controls [22].

Physical interactions of LIN7A

  • In this study, we show that MPP4 directly interacts with the Veli proteins via L27 heterodimerization in vitro [23].
  • MALS is a binding partner of IRSp53 at cell-cell contacts [17].

Other interactions of LIN7A

  • VAM-1: a new member of the MAGUK family binds to human Veli-1 through a conserved domain [12].
  • Here, we identified a PDZ protein, MALS, as an IRSp53-interacting protein using a yeast two-hybrid screen [17].
  • Recently, liprin-alpha proteins, which define active zone size and morphology, were found to associate with MALS/CASK, suggesting that this complex links the presynaptic release machinery to the active zone, thereby regulating neurotransmitter release [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LIN7A

  • Immunocytochemistry showed the colocalization of IRSp53 and MALS at cell-cell contacts [17].
  • By using a combination of affinity interaction pulldown assays and co-immunoprecipitations from brain and transfected cells, we demonstrated that a complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 associates with Kir2 channels via the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif [24].
  • In situ hybridization analysis of Lin7 shows a high tissue-specific expression in tapetum and pollen [14].
  • To research the pathophysiology of the Eustachian tube (ET), electromyographies (EMG) of the tensor and levator veli palatini muscles (TVP and LVP) in 46 fresh specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were studied [25].
  • Effect of a speech prosthesis on electromyographic activity levels of the levator veli palatini muscle activity during syllable repetition [26].


  1. Invasive behaviour of glioblastoma cell lines is associated with altered organisation of the cadherin-catenin adhesion system. Perego, C., Vanoni, C., Massari, S., Raimondi, A., Pola, S., Cattaneo, M.G., Francolini, M., Vicentini, L.M., Pietrini, G. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Prognostic factors of nasopharynx tumors investigated by MR imaging and the value of MR imaging in the newly published TNM staging. Sakata, K., Hareyama, M., Tamakawa, M., Oouchi, A., Sido, M., Nagakura, H., Akiba, H., Koito, K., Himi, T., Asakura, K. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Surgical anatomy of the levator veli palatini: a previously undescribed tendinous insertion of the anterolateral fibers. Mehendale, F.V. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Cavum veli interpositi. Roentgen anatomy - pathology and physiology. Picard, L., Leymarie, F., Roland, J., Sigiel, M., Masson, J.P., André, J.M., Renard, M. Neuroradiology. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Results with Furlow palatoplasty in management of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Sie, K.C., Tampakopoulou, D.A., Sorom, J., Gruss, J.S., Eblen, L.E. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Cavum veli interpositi and psychotic disorder in a monocygotic twin. Supprian, T., Bengel, D., Hofmann, E., Fallgatter, A.J., Franzek, E. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Cyst of the velum interpositum treated by endoscopic fenestration. Gangemi, M., Donati, P., Maiuri, F., Sigona, L. Surgical neurology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Synaptic transmission regulated by a presynaptic MALS/Liprin-alpha protein complex. Olsen, O., Moore, K.A., Nicoll, R.A., Bredt, D.S. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Direct interaction of two polarity complexes implicated in epithelial tight junction assembly. Hurd, T.W., Gao, L., Roh, M.H., Macara, I.G., Margolis, B. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The Stardust Family Protein MPP7 Forms a Tripartite Complex with LIN7 and DLG1 That Regulates the Stability and Localization of DLG1 to Cell Junctions. Bohl, J., Brimer, N., Lyons, C., Vande Pol, S.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. A general model for preferential hetero-oligomerization of LIN-2/7 domains: mechanism underlying directed assembly of supramolecular signaling complexes. Petrosky, K.Y., Ou, H.D., Löhr, F., Dötsch, V., Lim, W.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. VAM-1: a new member of the MAGUK family binds to human Veli-1 through a conserved domain. Tseng, T.C., Marfatia, S.M., Bryant, P.J., Pack, S., Zhuang, Z., O'Brien, J.E., Lin, L., Hanada, T., Chishti, A.H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Polar expression of ErbB-2/HER2 in epithelia. Bimodal regulation by Lin-7. Shelly, M., Mosesson, Y., Citri, A., Lavi, S., Zwang, Y., Melamed-Book, N., Aroeti, B., Yarden, Y. Dev. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Novel mode of hormone induction of tandem tomato invertase genes in floral tissues. Proels, R.K., Hause, B., Berger, S., Roitsch, T. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Ear pain in patients with oropharynx carcinoma: how MRI contributes to the explanation of a prognostic and predictive symptom. Thoeny, H.C., Beer, K.T., Vock, P., Greiner, R.H. European radiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Oral air pressure and nasal air flow rate on levator veli palatini muscle activity in patients wearing a speech appliance. Tachimura, T., Hara, H., Wada, T. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. MALS is a binding partner of IRSp53 at cell-cell contacts. Hori, K., Konno, D., Maruoka, H., Sobue, K. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Ear click in palatal tremor: its origin and treatment with botulinum toxin. Deuschl, G., Löhle, E., Heinen, F., Lücking, C. Neurology (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Phenotypic characterization and preclinical production of human lineage-negative cells for regenerative stem cell therapy. Strunk, D., Rohde, E., Lanzer, G., Linkesch, W. Transfusion (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of MALS/Velis-1, -2, and -3: a family of mammalian LIN-7 homologs enriched at brain synapses in association with the postsynaptic density-95/NMDA receptor postsynaptic complex. Jo, K., Derin, R., Li, M., Bredt, D.S. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Localization and source of gamma aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity in the isthmic nucleus of the frog Rana esculenta. Pollák, E., Lázár, G., Gábriel, R., Wang, S.R. Brain Res. Bull. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Alterations in lipids & lipid peroxidation in rats fed with flavonoid rich fraction of banana (Musa paradisiaca) from high background radiation area. Krishnan, K., Vijayalakshmi, N.R. Indian J. Med. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins MPP4 and MPP5 associate with Veli3 at distinct intercellular junctions of the neurosensory retina. Stöhr, H., Molday, L.L., Molday, R.S., Weber, B.H., Biedermann, B., Reichenbach, A., Krämer, F. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. A multiprotein trafficking complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 is associated with inward rectifier Kir2 potassium channels. Leonoudakis, D., Conti, L.R., Radeke, C.M., McGuire, L.M., Vandenberg, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Electromyographic study of tensor and levator veli palatini muscles in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Implications for eustachian tube dysfunction. Su, C.Y., Hsu, S.P., Chee, C.Y. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of a speech prosthesis on electromyographic activity levels of the levator veli palatini muscle activity during syllable repetition. Tachimura, T., Nohara, K., Fujita, Y., Wada, T. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (2002) [Pubmed]
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