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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Anaplasia


High impact information on Anaplasia

  • A semiquantitative immunohistochemical method demonstrated that expression of the p21 antigen in a carcinoma strongly correlated with nuclear anaplasia and was inversely related to the degree of glandular differentiation [5].
  • Our data further supported the association between HVH-2 and cervical anaplasia and indicated that CMV may also be implicated in its etiology [6].
  • These results indicate that progression to anaplasia is associated with clonal expansion of cells which have acquired a p53 mutation [7].
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that children with focal anaplasia have an excellent prognosis when treated with vincristine, doxorubicin, and dactinomycin [1].
  • A critical observation from histopathological studies is that there is progressive loss of GFAP expression with increasing astrocytic anaplasia [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anaplasia


Biological context of Anaplasia

  • Thirty-four Wilms' tumors with nephrogenic rests and/or areas of anaplasia were microdissected from paraffin sections to determine whether and at what stage loss of heterozygosity (LOH) occurred, using polymerase chain reaction-based polymorphic markers at 11p13, 11p15, and 16q [13].
  • Six cases are reported (four gliosarcomas and two glioblastomas) in which the epithelial-like areas of glial anaplasia showed focal squamous cell differentiation, characterized by the development of epithelial whorls, keratin pearls and immunopositivity for cytokeratin [14].
  • Ki-67 expression was correlated significantly with histologic grade only in the clinicopathologic factors (P <.0001), and in the histologic factors, with necrosis, mitosis, and anaplasia [15].
  • These observations suggest that elevated ras p21 antigen expression is important in the development of both cirrhotic nodules and HCC, but that after tumor development, its sustained elevation is no longer necessary for cell proliferation and progression through the grades of anaplasia [16].
  • Our observations show that complex chromosome abnormalities and telomeric associations are observed in tumors that histologically display a certain degree of anaplasia [17].

Anatomical context of Anaplasia

  • The results of these studies clearly show a disparity between the forms of hCG found in the normal placenta and pregnancy sera, as previously reported, and those found in the neoplastic trophoblast with varying degrees of anaplasia [18].
  • HER2 is not expressed in adult glial cells, but its expression increases with the degree of astrocytomas anaplasia [19].
  • The diagnosis of thymoma was used for circumscribed and invasive neoplasms of thymic epithelium without anaplasia [20].

Gene context of Anaplasia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anaplasia

  • Using the log-rank test (median observation time 94 months) a significantly worse prognosis (disease-free survival, overall survival) relation was found with larger tumors, nodal involvement, anaplasia, rising proliferation activity, and lack of steroid receptors [25].


  1. Treatment of children with stages II to IV anaplastic Wilms' tumor: a report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group. Green, D.M., Beckwith, J.B., Breslow, N.E., Faria, P., Moksness, J., Finklestein, J.Z., Grundy, P., Thomas, P.R., Kim, T., Shochat, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. June 2004: a male in his late 60s with recurrent extracerebral tumor. Mawrin, C., Hahne, R., Scherlach, C., Kirches, E., Dietzmann, K. Brain Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Loss of p53 promotes anaplasia and local invasion in ret/PTC1-induced thyroid carcinomas. La Perle, K.M., Jhiang, S.M., Capen, C.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Proteasome-dependent degradation of p27/kip1 in gliomas. Piva, R., Cancelli, I., Cavalla, P., Bortolotto, S., Dominguez, J., Draetta, G.F., Schiffer, D. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of ras oncogene p21 in prostate cancer. Viola, M.V., Fromowitz, F., Oravez, S., Deb, S., Finkel, G., Lundy, J., Hand, P., Thor, A., Schlom, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Herpesvirus antibodies and antigens in patients with cervical anaplasia and in controls. Pacsa, A.S., Kummerländer, L., Pejtsik, B., Pali, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Clonal expansion and attenuated apoptosis in Wilms' tumors are associated with p53 gene mutations. Bardeesy, N., Beckwith, J.B., Pelletier, J. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Transfection of human astrocytoma cells with glial fibrillary acidic protein complementary DNA: analysis of expression, proliferation, and tumorigenicity. Rutka, J.T., Smith, S.L. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Oncodevelopmental enzymes of the Dunning rat prostatic adenocarcinoma. Hall, M., Silverman, L., Wenger, A.S., Mickey, D.D. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis by retinyl acetate. Moon, R.C., Grubbs, C.J., Sporn, M.B. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Prognostic significance of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in primary breast cancer. Knoop, A., Andreasen, P.A., Andersen, J.A., Hansen, S., Laenkholm, A.V., Simonsen, A.C., Andersen, J., Overgaard, J., Rose, C. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of renal salvage procedures for bilateral Wilms tumor: a 15-year review. Cooper, C.S., Jaffe, W.I., Huff, D.S., Canning, D.A., Zderic, S.A., Meadows, A.T., D'Angio, G.J., Snyder, H.M. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Microdissecting the genetic events in nephrogenic rests and Wilms' tumor development. Charles, A.K., Brown, K.W., Berry, P.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Patterns of epithelial metaplasia in malignant gliomas. II. Squamous differentiation of epithelial-like formations in gliosarcomas and glioblastomas. Mørk, S.J., Rubinstein, L.J., Kepes, J.J., Perentes, E., Uphoff, D.F. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Prognostic significance of p27 and Ki-67 expression in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the intraoral minor salivary gland. Okabe, M., Inagaki, H., Murase, T., Inoue, M., Nagai, N., Eimoto, T. Mod. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunohistochemical detection of ras oncogene p21 product in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonomura, A., Ohta, G., Hayashi, M., Izumi, R., Watanabe, K., Takayanagi, N., Mizukami, Y., Matsubara, F. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Correlation between cytogenetic and histopathological findings in 75 human meningiomas. Vagner-Capodano, A.M., Grisoli, F., Gambarelli, D., Sedan, R., Pellet, W., De Victor, B. Neurosurgery (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Evidence for altered synthesis of human chorionic gonadotropin in gestational trophoblastic tumors. Vaitukaitis, J.L., Ebersole, E.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Increasing of HER2 Membranar Density in Human Glioblastoma U251MG Cell Line Established in a New Nude Mice Model. Mineo, J.F., Bordron, A., Isabelle, Q.R., Maurage, C.A., Virginie, B., Séverine, L., Dubois, F., Blond, S., Berthou, C. J. Neurooncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Thymic epithelial neoplasms. Swinborne-Sheldrake, K., Gray, G.F., Glick, A.D. South. Med. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Loss of GFAP expression in high-grade astrocytomas does not contribute to tumor development or progression. Wilhelmsson, U., Eliasson, C., Bjerkvig, R., Pekny, M. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Infratentorial ependymomas of childhood. Correlation between histological features, immunohistological phenotype, silver nucleolar organizer region staining values and post-operative survival in 16 cases. Figarella-Branger, D., Gambarelli, D., Dollo, C., Devictor, B., Perez-Castillo, A.M., Genitori, L., Lena, G., Choux, M., Pellissier, J.F. Acta Neuropathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Co-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein- and vimentin-type intermediate filaments in human astrocytomas. Herpers, M.J., Ramaekers, F.C., Aldeweireldt, J., Moesker, O., Slooff, J. Acta Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in oligodendrogliomas in humans. Fiano, V., Ghimenti, C., Schiffer, D. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Immunohistochemical detection of H-ras protooncoprotein p21 indicates favorable prognosis in node-negative breast cancer patients. Göhring, U.J., Schöndorf, T., Kiecker, V.R., Becker, M., Kurbacher, C., Scharl, A. Tumour Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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