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Gene Review

VIM  -  vimentin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CTRCT30, HEL113, Vimentin
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Disease relevance of VIM


Psychiatry related information on VIM


High impact information on VIM


Chemical compound and disease context of VIM


Biological context of VIM


Anatomical context of VIM

  • However, blastemal cells demonstrated coexpression of CYTO and VIM intermediate filaments when grown in a serum-free medium on a matrix material [18].
  • However, nearly all cases of CHB showed stromal cell staining with VIM (19/22) [19].
  • Co-expression of GFAP and VIM was seen in epiglottic chondrocytes and reactive astroglia; another metastatic carcinoma was labeled only for CKs [1].
  • Furthermore, prominent anti-VIM immunoreactivity and anti-EMA cell membrane staining including ring-like staining pattern is characteristic for CCEs [20].
  • RESULTS: RhCTGF(C) induced striking changes in epithelial cells, including changes in cellular morphology, loss of CK, gain VIM and alpha-SMA, and increased levels of fibronectin [21].

Associations of VIM with chemical compounds

  • Neither PMA nor dbcAMP influenced the VIM mRNA expression [22].
  • We show that secretion of vimentin, which is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, is enhanced by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and blocked by the specific protein kinase C inhibitor GO6983 [14].
  • Furthermore, the coalignment of specific DP proteins along keratin IF but not vimentin IF was correlated with resistance to extraction by Triton [23].
  • Vimentin and desmin differ most dramatically in their NH2-terminal "head" regions [24].
  • In astrocytes we studied the phosphorylation of the two major cytoskeletal proteins, vimentin and GFAP, which is normally stimulated by isoproterenol, and found that gp120 partially (40-50%) prevented such stimulation [25].

Physical interactions of VIM


Enzymatic interactions of VIM


Co-localisations of VIM


Regulatory relationships of VIM


Other interactions of VIM

  • We also show that the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), which inhibits PKC activity, blocks secretion of vimentin [14].
  • This marked association is not seen with simple epithelial type II keratins, vimentin, or with type I keratins, providing a possible explanation for the greater stability of the epidermal keratin filament architecture over that of other cell types [40].
  • In most myogenic systems, synthesis of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin precedes the synthesis of the muscle-specific IF protein desmin [24].
  • To investigate the function of GFAP, we have studied the human astrocytoma cell line, U251, which constitutively expresses GFAP and vimentin in the same 10-nm filaments [41].
  • We have found that the ATDC protein physically interacts with the intermediate-filament protein vimentin, which is a protein kinase C substrate and colocalizing protein, and with an inhibitor of protein kinase C, hPKCI-1 [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VIM


  1. Non-glial specificities of immunocytochemistry for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Triple expression of GFAP, vimentin and cytokeratins in papillary meningioma and metastasizing renal carcinoma. Budka, H. Acta Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Shared antigenic determinants between human hemopoietic cells and nervous tissues and tumors. Budka, H., Majdic, O. Acta Neuropathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunohistochemical demonstration of vimentin in human cerebral tumors. Schiffer, D., Giordana, M.T., Mauro, A., Migheli, A., Germano, I., Giaccone, G. Acta Neuropathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of glial acidic fibrillary protein in the human entorhinal cortex during aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Porchet, R., Probst, A., Bouras, C., Dráberová, E., Dráber, P., Riederer, B.M. Proteomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Occlusal restorative decisions based on visual inspection--calibration and comparison of different methods. Lavonius, E., Kerosuo, E., Kallio, P., Pietilä, I., Mjör, I.A. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Intermediate filament reorganization during mitosis is mediated by p34cdc2 phosphorylation of vimentin. Chou, Y.H., Bischoff, J.R., Beach, D., Goldman, R.D. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the hamster desmin gene: expression and formation of desmin filaments in nonmuscle cells after gene transfer. Quax, W., van den Broek, L., Egberts, W.V., Ramaekers, F., Bloemendal, H. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Antivimentin autoantibodies in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Dellagi, K., Brouet, J.C., Seligmann, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Differentiation potential of ovarian dysgerminoma: an immunohistochemical study of 15 cases. Lifschitz-Mercer, B., Walt, H., Kushnir, I., Jacob, N., Diener, P.A., Moll, R., Czernobilsky, B. Hum. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of glial filament-cytoskeletal interactions in human astrocytomas: an immuno-ultrastructural analysis. Rutka, J.T., Ackerley, C., Hubbard, S.L., Tilup, A., Dirks, P.B., Jung, S., Ivanchuk, S., Kurimoto, M., Tsugu, A., Becker, L.E. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of morphologic and immunohistochemical features of cervical microglandular hyperplasia with low-grade mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Qiu, W., Mittal, K. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induces vimentin and GFAP expression in cultured medulloblastoma cells. Maria, B.L., Wong, D., Kalnins, V.I. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Vimentin/desmin immunoreactivity of myofibres in developmental myopathies. Sarnat, H.B. Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Vimentin is secreted by activated macrophages. Mor-Vaknin, N., Punturieri, A., Sitwala, K., Markovitz, D.M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The product of the ataxia-telangiectasia group D complementing gene, ATDC, interacts with a protein kinase C substrate and inhibitor. Brzoska, P.M., Chen, H., Zhu, Y., Levin, N.A., Disatnik, M.H., Mochly-Rosen, D., Murnane, J.P., Christman, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of bipotential progenitor cells in human liver development. Haruna, Y., Saito, K., Spaulding, S., Nalesnik, M.A., Gerber, M.A. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Vimentin rather than keratin expression in some hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines and in oncogene-transformed mammary epithelial cells. Sommers, C.L., Walker-Jones, D., Heckford, S.E., Worland, P., Valverius, E., Clark, R., McCormick, F., Stampfer, M., Abularach, S., Gelmann, E.P. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. The in vitro growth, heterotransplantation, and immunohistochemical characterization of the blastemal component of Wilms' tumor. Garvin, A.J., Sullivan, J.L., Bennett, D.D., Stanley, W.S., Inabnett, T., Sens, D.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. A detailed immunohistochemical analysis of cerebellar hemangioblastoma: an undifferentiated mesenchymal tumor. Frank, T.S., Trojanowski, J.Q., Roberts, S.A., Brooks, J.J. Mod. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Value and limits of immunohistochemistry in differential diagnosis of clear cell primary brain tumors. Koperek, O., Gelpi, E., Birner, P., Haberler, C., Budka, H., Hainfellner, J.A. Acta Neuropathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) module 4 in regulating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HK-2 cells. Liu, B.C., Zhang, J.D., Zhang, X.L., Wu, G.Q., Li, M.X. Clin. Chim. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. PKA and PKC activation induces opposite glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and morphology changes in a glioblastoma multiform cell line of clonal origin. Arcuri, C., Bocchini, V., Guerrieri, P., Fages, C., Tardy, M. J. Neurosci. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional analysis of desmoplakin domains: specification of the interaction with keratin versus vimentin intermediate filament networks. Stappenbeck, T.S., Bornslaeger, E.A., Corcoran, C.M., Luu, H.H., Virata, M.L., Green, K.J. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential organization of desmin and vimentin in muscle is due to differences in their head domains. Cary, R.B., Klymkowsky, M.W. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 inhibits the beta-adrenergic regulation of astroglial and microglial functions. Levi, G., Patrizio, M., Bernardo, A., Petrucci, T.C., Agresti, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Desmosomal plaque-associated vimentin filaments in human ovarian granulosa cell tumors of various histologic patterns. Czernobilsky, B., Moll, R., Leppien, G., Schweikhart, G., Franke, W.W. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Cutting edge: integration of human T lymphocyte cytoskeleton by the cytolinker plectin. Brown, M.J., Hallam, J.A., Liu, Y., Yamada, K.M., Shaw, S. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Oxysterol-binding-protein (OSBP)-related protein 4 binds 25-hydroxycholesterol and interacts with vimentin intermediate filaments. Wang, C., JeBailey, L., Ridgway, N.D. Biochem. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Transactivation of vimentin by beta-catenin in human breast cancer cells. Gilles, C., Polette, M., Mestdagt, M., Nawrocki-Raby, B., Ruggeri, P., Birembaut, P., Foidart, J.M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. The 3' untranslated region of human vimentin mRNA interacts with protein complexes containing eEF-1gamma and HAX-1. Al-Maghrebi, M., Brulé, H., Padkina, M., Allen, C., Holmes, W.M., Zehner, Z.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Retaining of the assembly capability of vimentin phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2. Cheng, T.J., Tseng, Y.F., Chang, W.M., Chang, M.D., Lai, Y.K. J. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Nuclear matrix-intermediate filament system and its alteration in adenovirus infected HeLa cell. Zhai, Z.H., Wang, X., Qian, X.Y. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Demonstration of cytokeratin in endothelial cells of the synovial microvasculature in situ and in vitro. Mattey, D.L., Nixon, N., Wynn-Jones, C., Dawes, P.T. Br. J. Rheumatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. The Raf-1 kinase associates with vimentin kinases and regulates the structure of vimentin filaments. Janosch, P., Kieser, A., Eulitz, M., Lovric, J., Sauer, G., Reichert, M., Gounari, F., Büscher, D., Baccarini, M., Mischak, H., Kolch, W. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Transglutaminase 5 cross-links loricrin, involucrin, and small proline-rich proteins in vitro. Candi, E., Oddi, S., Terrinoni, A., Paradisi, A., Ranalli, M., Finazzi-Agró, A., Melino, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The endless story of the glial fibrillary acidic protein. Chen, W.J., Liem, R.K. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Menin's interaction with glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin suggests a role for the intermediate filament network in regulating menin activity. Lopez-Egido, J., Cunningham, J., Berg, M., Oberg, K., Bongcam-Rudloff, E., Gobl, A. Exp. Cell Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Nestin expression in adult and developing human kidney. Bertelli, E., Regoli, M., Fonzi, L., Occhini, R., Mannucci, S., Ermini, L., Toti, P. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  39. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands: immunohistochemical distribution of intermediate filament proteins, involucrin and secretory proteins. Huang, J.W., Mori, M., Yamada, K., Isono, K., Ueno, K., Shinohara, M., Harada, T., Oka, M. Anticancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Making a connection: direct binding between keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomal proteins. Kouklis, P.D., Hutton, E., Fuchs, E. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. Suppression by antisense mRNA demonstrates a requirement for the glial fibrillary acidic protein in the formation of stable astrocytic processes in response to neurons. Weinstein, D.E., Shelanski, M.L., Liem, R.K. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  42. Aortic smooth muscle cells contain vimentin instead of desmin. Frank, E.D., Warren, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  43. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease cleaves the intermediate filament proteins vimentin, desmin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Shoeman, R.L., Höner, B., Stoller, T.J., Kesselmeier, C., Miedel, M.C., Traub, P., Graves, M.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
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