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Chemical Compound Review

Cyclodol     1-cyclohexyl-1-phenyl-3-(1...

Synonyms: Benzhexol, Trihexane, Trihexy, Tremin, Benzhexolum, ...
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Disease relevance of trihexyphenidyl


Psychiatry related information on trihexyphenidyl


High impact information on trihexyphenidyl


Chemical compound and disease context of trihexyphenidyl


Biological context of trihexyphenidyl


Anatomical context of trihexyphenidyl


Associations of trihexyphenidyl with other chemical compounds


Gene context of trihexyphenidyl

  • Using a radioreceptor technique, we assayed serum trihexyphenidyl levels in patients with dystonia being treated chronically with high dosage [30].
  • In conclusion, with the exception of preprodynorphin messenger RNA, trihexyphenidyl treatment was unable to counteract the imbalance in prepropeptide messenger RNA expression produced by a unilateral striatal dopaminergic denervation and even amplified this effect [20].
  • The effects of the antiparkinsonian agent trihexyphenidyl, a selective M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, were studied in doses of 100, 320 and 1000 micrograms/kg i.m. alone [31].
  • 5. The present study shows that the muscarinic receptors coupled to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase in the olfactory bulb display high stereoselectivity for the enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl [32].
  • The purpose of this work was to characterize a novel ethosomal carrier containing trihexyphenidyl HCl (THP) and to investigate the delivery of THP from ethosomes versus classic liposomes [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of trihexyphenidyl


  1. Pharmacokinetics of trihexyphenidyl after short-term and long-term administration to dystonic patients. Burke, R.E., Fahn, S. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Palatal myoclonus responding to trihexyphenidyl. Jabbari, B., Gunderson, C.H. Ann. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Reversibility of long-term tardive dyskinesia associated with antiparkinsonian medication: a case report. Good, M.I. The American journal of psychiatry. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Amantadine versus trihexyphenidyl in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Fann, W.E., Lake, C.R. The American journal of psychiatry. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Improvement of ataxic hemiparesis with trihexyphenidyl. Jabbari, B., Gunderson, C.H., McBurney, J.W. Neurology (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of chronic treatment with trihexyphenidyl and carbamazepine alone or in combination with haloperidol on substance P content in rat brain: a possible implication of substance P in affective disorders. Mitsushio, H., Takashima, M., Mataga, N., Toru, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Trihexyphenidyl as a possible therapeutic option in clozapine-induced nocturnal enuresis. Poyurovsky, M., Modai, I., Weizman, A. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonists disrupt memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance in rats. Roldán, G., Bolaños-Badillo, E., González-Sánchez, H., Quirarte, G.L., Prado-Alcalá, R.A. Neurosci. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Severe withdrawal akathisia following neuroleptic discontinuation successfully controlled by clozapine. Poyurovsky, M., Hermesh, H., Weizman, A. International clinical psychopharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Disturbance of recent memory function in parkinsonian patients on anticholinergic therapy. Koller, W.C. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Electromyography in cervical dystonia: changes after botulinum and trihexyphenidyl. Brans, J.W., Aramideh, M., Koelman, J.H., Lindeboom, R., Speelman, J.D., Ongerboer de Visser, B.W. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Botulinum toxin versus trihexyphenidyl in cervical dystonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Brans, J.W., Lindeboom, R., Snoek, J.W., Zwarts, M.J., van Weerden, T.W., Brunt, E.R., van Hilten, J.J., van der Kamp, W., Prins, M.H., Speelman, J.D. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of anticholinergic agents on patients with tardive dyskinesia and concomitant drug-induced parkinsonism. Wirshing, W.C., Freidenberg, D.L., Cummings, J.L., Bartzokis, G. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Possible neuronal mechanisms involved in neurotensin-induced catalepsy in mice. Shibata, K., Yamada, K., Furukawa, T. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. The treatment of severe dystonia in children and adults. Marsden, C.D., Marion, M.H., Quinn, N. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Combination therapy of extrapyramidal disease with trihexyphenidyl and L-dopa: an electromyographic study with specific reference to tremor. Hökendorf, H. J. Int. Med. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Blepharospasm: a case study comparison of trihexyphenidyl (Artane) versus EMG biofeedback. Brantley, P.J., Carnrike, C.L., Faulstich, M.E., Barkemeyer, C.A. Biofeedback and self-regulation. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of central and peripheral pharmacologic effects of biperiden and trihexyphenidyl in human volunteers. Guthrie, S.K., Manzey, L., Scott, D., Giordani, B., Tandon, R. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence that the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype mediates the effects of oxotremorine on masculine sexual behavior. Retana-Marquez, S., Velazquez-Moctezuma, J. Neuropsychopharmacology (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Chronic blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors by systemic trihexyphenidyl (Artane) administration modulates but does not mediate the dopaminergic regulation of striatal prepropeptide messenger RNA expression. Mavridis, M., Rogard, M., Besson, M.J. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Impaired absorption of chlorpromazine in rats given trihexyphenidyl. Rivera-Calimlim, L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparative behavioral and neurochemical activities of cholinergic antagonists in rats. Bymaster, F.P., Heath, I., Hendrix, J.C., Shannon, H.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Actions of trihexyphenidyl and benztropine on squid axon membranes. Wu, C.H., Narahashi, T. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Stereoselectivity of the enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl and its methiodide at muscarinic receptor subtypes. Lambrecht, G., Feifel, R., Moser, U., Aasen, A.J., Waelbroeck, M., Christophe, J., Mutschler, E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of ammonium chloride on the tissue distribution of anticholinergic drugs in rats. Ishizaki, J., Yokogawa, K., Nakashima, E., Ohkuma, S., Ichimura, F. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of anticholinergic agents upon acquired nystagmus: a double-blind study of trihexyphenidyl and tridihexethyl chloride. Leigh, R.J., Burnstine, T.H., Ruff, R.L., Kasmer, R.J. Neurology (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Binding and functional profiles of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonists trihexyphenidyl and dicyclomine. Giachetti, A., Giraldo, E., Ladinsky, H., Montagna, E. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Trihexyphenidyl potentiation of L-DOPA: reduced effectiveness three years later in MPTP-induced chronic hemiparkinsonian monkeys. Domino, E.F., Ni, L. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. The effects of co-administration of benzhexol on the peripheral pharmacokinetics of oral levodopa in young volunteers. Roberts, J., Waller, D.G., von Renwick, A.G., O'Shea, N., Macklin, B.S., Bulling, M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Serum trihexyphenidyl levels in the treatment of torsion dystonia. Burke, R.E., Fahn, S. Neurology (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Trihexyphenidyl interactions with the dopamine D1-selective receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the D2-selective receptor agonist N-0923 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys. Domino, E.F., Ni, L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Antagonism by (R)- and (S)-trihexyphenidyl of muscarinic stimulation of adenylyl cyclase in rat olfactory bulb and inhibition in striatum and heart. Onali, P., Aasen, A.J., Olianas, M.C. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Carriers for skin delivery of trihexyphenidyl HCl: ethosomes vs. liposomes. Dayan, N., Touitou, E. Biomaterials (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Development and application of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for trihexyphenidyl to a pharmacokinetic study in humans. He, H., McKay, G., Wirshing, B., Midha, K.K. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Capillary gas chromatography of trihexyphenidyl, procyclidine and cycrimine in biological fluids. Owen, J.A., Sribney, M., Lawson, J.S., Delva, N., Letemendia, F.J. J. Chromatogr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of acetylcholine agonists and antagonists on yawning and analgesia in the rat. Gower, A.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  37. Withdrawal of trihexyphenidyl. McInnis, M., Petursson, H. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1985) [Pubmed]
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