The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Olfaction Disorders

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Olfaction Disorders


Psychiatry related information on Olfaction Disorders

  • 1. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy, sham-operation and inducement of peripheral anosmia were studied on locomotor activity, passive avoidance acquisition and irritability [6].

High impact information on Olfaction Disorders


Chemical compound and disease context of Olfaction Disorders


Biological context of Olfaction Disorders

  • Blinding and anosmia in postpubertal animals produced only a minor decrease in PRL synthesis and pituitary weight and no decrease in pituitary cell number [16].
  • In Experiment 2, anosmia to volatile odors was induced by spraying zinc sulfate intranasally on gestation day 21 and L1 [17].
  • Kallmann syndrome is defined as a congenital isolated gonadotropic deficiency associated with anosmia whereas the phenotype of the idiopathic form is limited to the gonadotropic axis [18].
  • Mice heterozygous for the insulin receptor kinase (IR+/-) gene performed the same as wild-type (+/+) mice when challenged with a traditional, non-learning-based task to test gross anosmia [19].
  • Olfactory function was evaluated by olfactory event-related potentials and standardized psychophysical measures including the Smell Identification Test and odor detection threshold tests for 3 chemosensory stimulants in 9 subjects with isolated congenital anosmia and 9 age- and gender-matched normosmic controls [20].

Anatomical context of Olfaction Disorders


Gene context of Olfaction Disorders

  • For several years, it has been known that mutations of the KAL-1 gene or loss-of-function mutations of GnRH receptor did not explain all familial cases of isolated gonadotropic deficiency with or without anosmia [18].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed prevalence of hyposmia among patients with allergic rhinitis suggests that this is a major etiologic factor contributing to smell disorders [26].
  • On the other hand, compared with normal leukotrienuria in the patients with ATA, hyperleukotrienuria in the patients with ATA was associated with severe asthma and chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CHRS/NP), which are well-known symptoms of the aspirin triad, as well as hypereosinophilia and anosmia [27].
  • GnRH was administered i.v. at a physiologic frequency and dose (75-100 ng/kg.bolus) to women with IHH (n = 11; n = 6 with anosmia); acquired GnRH deficiency secondary to treatment for cranial tumors (AHH; n = 7); and secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA; n = 8) [28].
  • However, the physiological interpretation of the effects of bulbar ablation is complex, since it simultaneously implies sequelae like: a) the loss of olfactory sensitivity (anosmia), b) the suppression of the accessory olfactory system (AOS), and c) the suppression of nonsensorial functions of the bulbs [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Olfaction Disorders


  1. The candidate gene for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome encodes a protein related to adhesion molecules. Legouis, R., Hardelin, J.P., Levilliers, J., Claverie, J.M., Compain, S., Wunderle, V., Millasseau, P., Le Paslier, D., Cohen, D., Caterina, D. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons. Schwanzel-Fukuda, M., Pfaff, D.W. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure-function analysis of phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase mutations causing Refsum's disease. Mukherji, M., Chien, W., Kershaw, N.J., Clifton, I.J., Schofield, C.J., Wierzbicki, A.S., Lloyd, M.D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Reversible kallmann syndrome, delayed puberty, and isolated anosmia occurring in a single family with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene. Pitteloud, N., Acierno, J.S., Meysing, A.U., Dwyer, A.A., Hayes, F.J., Crowley, W.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Antigonadal actions of olfactory and light deprivation. II. Effects of pinealectomy or melatonin injections in olfactory bulb deafferented or bulbectomized male rats. Mediavilla, M.D., Sánchez-Barceló, E.J., Sánchez-Criado, J.E., Cos, S., Cortines, M.D. J. Pineal Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Olfactory bulb ablation in the rat: behavioural changes and their reversal by antidepressant drugs. van Riezen, H., Schnieden, H., Wren, A.F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Loss of BBS proteins causes anosmia in humans and defects in olfactory cilia structure and function in the mouse. Kulaga, H.M., Leitch, C.C., Eichers, E.R., Badano, J.L., Lesemann, A., Hoskins, B.E., Lupski, J.R., Beales, P.L., Reed, R.R., Katsanis, N. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. The genetic basis for specific anosmia to isovaleric acid in the mouse. Griff, I.C., Reed, R.R. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure of the X-linked Kallmann syndrome gene and its homologous pseudogene on the Y chromosome. del Castillo, I., Cohen-Salmon, M., Blanchard, S., Lutfalla, G., Petit, C. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Pheromone anosmia in a scarab beetle induced by in vivo inhibition of a pheromone-degrading enzyme. Maïbèche-Coisne, M., Nikonov, A.A., Ishida, Y., Jacquin-Joly, E., Leal, W.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Clinical assessment and mutation analysis of Kallmann syndrome 1 (KAL1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1, or KAL2) in five families and 18 sporadic patients. Sato, N., Katsumata, N., Kagami, M., Hasegawa, T., Hori, N., Kawakita, S., Minowada, S., Shimotsuka, A., Shishiba, Y., Yokozawa, M., Yasuda, T., Nagasaki, K., Hasegawa, D., Hasegawa, Y., Tachibana, K., Naiki, Y., Horikawa, R., Tanaka, T., Ogata, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of the KAL gene in multiple neuronal sites during chicken development. Legouis, R., Lievre, C.A., Leibovici, M., Lapointe, F., Petit, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure of human phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase identifies molecular mechanisms of Refsum disease. McDonough, M.A., Kavanagh, K.L., Butler, D., Searls, T., Oppermann, U., Schofield, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. X-linked ichthyosis, due to steroid sulphatase deficiency, associated with Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia): linkage relationships with Xg and cloned DNA sequences from the distal short arm of the X chromosome. Ballabio, A., Parenti, G., Tippett, P., Mondello, C., Di Maio, S., Tenore, A., Andria, G. Hum. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Antidepressants preferentially enhance habituation to novelty in the olfactory bulbectomized rat. Mar, A., Spreekmeester, E., Rochford, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of a pineal-mediated inhibition of pubertal prolactin cell development in blind-anosmic female rats. Leadem, C.A., Blask, D.E. J. Pineal Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Maternal aggression in rats: effects of olfactory bulbectomy, ZnSO4-induced anosmia, and vomeronasal organ removal. Kolunie, J.M., Stern, J.M. Hormones and behavior. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. New insights in the genetics of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Iovane, A., Aumas, C., de Roux, N. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Electrophysiological and behavioral phenotype of insulin receptor defective mice. Das, P., Parsons, A.D., Scarborough, J., Hoffman, J., Wilson, J., Thompson, R.N., Overton, J.M., Fadool, D.A. Physiol. Behav. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Olfactory event-related potentials to amyl acetate in congenital anosmia. Cui, L., Evans, W.J. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Kallmann syndrome: MR evaluation of olfactory system. Yousem, D.M., Turner, W.J., Li, C., Snyder, P.J., Doty, R.L. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. A counter antigonadotrophic effect of melatonin in male rats. Reiter, R.J., Blask, D.E., Vaughan, M.K. Neuroendocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Intranasal inoculation with the olfactory bulb line variant of mouse hepatitis virus causes extensive destruction of the olfactory bulb and accelerated turnover of neurons in the olfactory epithelium of mice. Schwob, J.E., Saha, S., Youngentob, S.L., Jubelt, B. Chem. Senses (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Intranasal zinc and anosmia: the zinc-induced anosmia syndrome. Alexander, T.H., Davidson, T.M. Laryngoscope (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Olfactory bulbectomy and play fighting in juvenile rats. Beatty, W.W., Costello, K.B. Physiol. Behav. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Hyposmia in allergic rhinitis. Cowart, B.J., Flynn-Rodden, K., McGeady, S.J., Lowry, L.D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Clinical features of asthmatic patients with increased urinary leukotriene E4 excretion (hyperleukotrienuria): Involvement of chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Higashi, N., Taniguchi, M., Mita, H., Kawagishi, Y., Ishii, T., Higashi, A., Osame, M., Akiyama, K. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Exaggerated free alpha-subunit levels during pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone replacement in women with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Lavoie, H.B., Martin, K.A., Taylor, E., Crowley, W.F., Hall, J.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Antigonadal actions of olfactory and light deprivation. I. Effects of blindness combined with olfactory bulb deafferentation, transection of vomeronasal nerves, or bulbectomy. Sánchez-Barceló, E.J., Mediavilla, M.D., Sánchez-Criado, J.E., Cos, S., Cortines, M.D. J. Pineal Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of the sensitivity of C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice to airborne molecules of isovaleric acid and amyl acetate. Pourtier, L., Sicard, G. Behav. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Steroid-dependent anosmia. Jafek, B.W., Moran, D.T., Eller, P.M., Rowley, J.C., Jafek, T.B. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Estrogen-receptor occurrence in the female mouse brain: effects of maternal experience, ovariectomy, estrogen and anosmia. Ehret, G., Buckenmaier, J. J. Physiol. Paris (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities