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MeSH Review

Meibomian Glands

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Disease relevance of Meibomian Glands


High impact information on Meibomian Glands


Chemical compound and disease context of Meibomian Glands


Biological context of Meibomian Glands


Anatomical context of Meibomian Glands


Associations of Meibomian Glands with chemical compounds

  • Dry-eye signs, including tear-film breakup time, Schirmer test result, score for fluorescein staining of the cornea, and meibomian gland dysfunction, were assessed [20].
  • Biomicroscopy proved valuable in identifying and documenting early lesions associated with epinephrine-induced meibomian gland dysfunction [21].
  • The model supports previous observations by the authors that systemic 13-cis-retinoic acid affects meibomian gland structure in a laboratory animal [22].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that testosterone regulates the expression of numerous genes in the mouse meibomian gland and that many of these genes are involved in lipid metabolic pathways [23].
  • Lipids secreted form the bovine meibomian glands were assigned to following classes: cholesteryl esters (A) (fatty acyl chain lengths from 15 to 27 carbon atoms), 41%; wax esters, 29%; triacylglycerols, 10%; and cholesteryl ester (B) (fatty acyl chain lengths from 14 to 18 carbons), 15% [24].

Gene context of Meibomian Glands

  • Keratins isolated from whole rabbit meibomian glands contained a 65-67 kD and 58 kD AE3-positive, and a 56.5 kD and 50 kD AE1-positive keratin protein [25].
  • PURPOSE: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids, one of the important constituents of human meibomian gland secretions [26].
  • A region of strong labelling for aggrecan, dermatan sulphate and chondroitin 6 sulphate immediately surrounded the Meibomian glands [27].
  • Whereas in the skin, hyperkeratinization is followed by follicular hyperkeratosis and dermal cyst formation, in the meibomian gland, ductal hyperkeratinization appeared to lead to loss of well developed acini followed by atrophy of the gland at 1 year as confirmed by immunostaining for keratin proteins [28].
  • The expression of keratin proteins from meibomian glands and their correlation with skin epidermal keratins were determined [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Meibomian Glands


  1. 15-Lipoxygenase-2 expression in benign and neoplastic sebaceous glands and other cutaneous adnexa. Shappell, S.B., Keeney, D.S., Zhang, J., Page, R., Olson, S.J., Brash, A.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunohistochemical evidence for estrogen receptors in meibomian glands. Esmaeli, B., Harvey, J.T., Hewlett, B. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Normal but not altered mucins activate neutrophils. Aknin, M.L., Berry, M., Dick, A.D., Khan-Lim, D. Cell Tissue Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Meibomian gland triglyceride fatty acid differences in chronic blepharitis patients. Shine, W.E., McCulley, J.P. Cornea (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Is complete androgen insensitivity syndrome associated with alterations in the meibomian gland and ocular surface? Cermak, J.M., Krenzer, K.L., Sullivan, R.M., Dana, M.R., Sullivan, D.A. Cornea (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Hyperlipidemia and cutaneous abnormalities in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1. Jong, M.C., Gijbels, M.J., Dahlmans, V.E., Gorp, P.J., Koopman, S.J., Ponec, M., Hofker, M.H., Havekes, L.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia disruption yields a mouse model for ocular surface disease and resultant blindness. Cui, C.Y., Smith, J.A., Schlessinger, D., Chan, C.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Mammalian wax biosynthesis. I. Identification of two fatty acyl-Coenzyme A reductases with different substrate specificities and tissue distributions. Cheng, J.B., Russell, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of androgen deficiency on the human meibomian gland and ocular surface. Krenzer, K.L., Dana, M.R., Ullman, M.D., Cermak, J.M., Tolls, D.B., Evans, J.E., Sullivan, D.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Meibomian gland dysfunction and tear film abnormalities in rosacea. Zengin, N., Tol, H., Gündüz, K., Okudan, S., Balevi, S., Endoğru, H. Cornea (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of commercially available topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Perry, H.D., Doshi-Carnevale, S., Donnenfeld, E.D., Solomon, R., Biser, S.A., Bloom, A.H. Cornea (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Discoid lupus erythematosus of the eyelids associated with staphylococcal blepharitis and Meibomian gland dysfunction. Ena, P., Pinna, A., Carta, F. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Acyl-CoA reductase and acyl-CoA: fatty alcohol acyl transferase in the microsomal preparation from the bovine meibomian gland. Kolattukudy, P.E., Rogers, L. J. Lipid Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen deficiency, Meibomian gland dysfunction, and evaporative dry eye. Sullivan, D.A., Sullivan, B.D., Evans, J.E., Schirra, F., Yamagami, H., Liu, M., Richards, S.M., Suzuki, T., Schaumberg, D.A., Sullivan, R.M., Dana, M.R. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Meibomian gland dysfunction. II. The role of keratinization in a rabbit model of MGD. Jester, J.V., Nicolaides, N., Kiss-Palvolgyi, I., Smith, R.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Keratitis associated with multiple endocrine deficiency. Mohammadpour, M., Javadi, M.A. Cornea (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Eyelid secretions and the prevention and production of disease. Bron, A.J. Eye (London, England) (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Pathology of experimentally induced polybrominated biphenyl toxicosis in pregnant heifers. Moorhead, P.D., Willett, L.B., Brumm, C.J., Mercer, H.D. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptor mRNAs in the eye. Wickham, L.A., Gao, J., Toda, I., Rocha, E.M., Ono, M., Sullivan, D.A. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Association between symptoms and signs of dry eye among an elderly Chinese population in Taiwan: the Shihpai Eye Study. Lin, P.Y., Cheng, C.Y., Hsu, W.M., Tsai, S.Y., Lin, M.W., Liu, J.H., Chou, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. In vivo biomicroscopy and photography of meibomian glands in a rabbit model of meibomian gland dysfunction. Jester, J.V., Rife, L., Nii, D., Luttrull, J.K., Wilson, L., Smith, R.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid on the hamster meibomian gland. Lambert, R.W., Smith, R.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Androgen control of gene expression in the mouse meibomian gland. Schirra, F., Suzuki, T., Richards, S.M., Jensen, R.V., Liu, M., Lombardi, M.J., Rowley, P., Treister, N.S., Sullivan, D.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Composition of the neutral lipids of bovine meilbomian secretions. Baron, C., Blough, H.A. J. Lipid Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Meibomian gland dysfunction. I. Keratin protein expression in normal human and rabbit meibomian glands. Jester, J.V., Nicolaides, N., Smith, R.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Enhanced secretory group II PLA2 activity in the tears of chronic blepharitis patients. Song, C.H., Choi, J.S., Kim, D.K., Kim, J.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. An immunohistochemical study of the extracellular matrix of the tarsal plate in the upper eyelid in human beings. Milz, S., Neufang, J., Higashiyama, I., Putz, R., Benjamin, M. J. Anat. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Meibomian gland changes in the rhino (hrrhhrrh) mouse. Jester, J.V., Rajagopalan, S., Rodrigues, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols from hamster meibomian glands using picolinyl and nicotinate derivatives. Harvey, D.J. Biomed. Chromatogr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Ocular manifestations in a father and son with EEC syndrome. Käsmann, B., Ruprecht, K.W. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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