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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Pediculus


High impact information on Pediculus


Chemical compound and disease context of Pediculus


Biological context of Pediculus

  • Phenothrin-susceptible and -resistant head louse colonies from Japanese were individually analyzed for point mutations of the sodium channel cDNA; susceptible head and body lice differed in double homozygous synonymous substitutions [11].
  • To clarify the specific status of head and body lice, we sequenced 524 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of 28 head and 28 body lice from nine countries [12].
  • In order to investigate human-louse phylogeny, we partially sequenced two nuclear (18S rRNA and EF-1 alpha) and one mitochondrial (COI) genes from 155 Pediculus from different geographical origins [13].

Associations of Pediculus with chemical compounds

  • Eighty-nine per cent of children treated in Leeds with carbaryl were cured compared with 100% in Bristol. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest head lice resistance is present in many parts of England to over-the-counter products containing synthetic insecticides (permethrin, phenothrin and malathion) [14].
  • The efficacy and safety of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo were compared for the treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) [15].
  • Synergized pyrethrin mousse, a new approach to head lice eradication: efficacy in field and laboratory studies [16].
  • The difference in efficacy of 1% lindane, Nix, and pyrethrins between the Panama and Florida studies supports the argument that some head lice in the United States have become resistant to these treatments [17].
  • An emulsifiable concentrate formulation of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin was applied in a plunge dip, 3 weeks after shearing, to a group of 5 Merino sheep infested with sheep body lice, Bovicola ovis [18].

Gene context of Pediculus

  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the T929I and L932F mutations was confirmed by DNA sequencing in lice collected from children in south Florida that were resistant to the pediculicidal effects of permethrin and the leading permethrin-based head lice product, Nix [19].
  • The effects of disulfiram, benzyl benzoate and DDT, all components of a common preparation (Tenutex) for the control of the head louse, were tested on louse eggs [20].
  • Since the pioneering work of Charles Nicolle in 1909 [see Gross (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:10539-10540] most medical officers and scientists have assumed that body lice are the sole vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii, the aetiological agent of louse-borne epidemic typhus (LBET) [21].
  • Prevalence of head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation among inhabitants of the Niger Delta [22].
  • Despite the limited amount of isoenzyme variation detected (only 2/31 polymorphic loci), divergences of Est-3 and Pgm among Pediculus populations may be relevant to their biosystematics and resistance [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pediculus


  1. Permethrin 5% dermal cream: a new treatment for scabies. Taplin, D., Meinking, T.L., Porcelain, S.L., Castillero, P.M., Chen, J.A. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. The effect of erythromycin on the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii in the body louse (Pediculus humanus corporis L) and the tick (Ornithodoros moubata Murray). Becla, E. Chemotherapy. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. New and emerging therapies in pediatric dermatology. Raimer, S.S. Dermatologic clinics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. Brouqui, P., Lascola, B., Roux, V., Raoult, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Malathion for treatment of Pediculus humanus var capitis infestation. Taplin, D., Castillero, P.M., Spiegel, J., Mercer, S., Rivera, A.A., Schachner, L. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Carbaril for head lice. Davies, P. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Controlled study of malathion and d-phenothrin lotions for Pediculus humanus var capitis-infested schoolchildren. Chosidow, O., Chastang, C., Brue, C., Bouvet, E., Izri, M., Monteny, N., Bastuji-Garin, S., Rousset, J.J., Revuz, J. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. An observer-blinded study of 1% permethrin creme rinse with and without adjunctive combing in patients with head lice. Meinking, T.L., Clineschmidt, C.M., Chen, C., Kolber, M.A., Tipping, R.W., Furtek, C.I., Villar, M.E., Guzzo, C.A. J. Pediatr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of scabies and pediculosis with lindane preparations: an evaluation. Shacter, B. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Current treatments for scabies and pediculosis. Elgart, M.L. Skin Therapy Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular analysis of a para sodium channel gene from pyrethroid-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Tomita, T., Yaguchi, N., Mihara, M., Takahashi, M., Agui, N., Kasai, S. J. Med. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence from mitochondrial DNA that head lice and body lice of humans (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) are conspecific. Leo, N.P., Campbell, N.J., Yang, X., Mumcuoglu, K., Barker, S.C. J. Med. Entomol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The geographical segregation of human lice preceded that of Pediculus humanus capitis and Pediculus humanus humanus. Yong, Z., Fournier, P.E., Rydkina, E., Raoult, D. C. R. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Widespread insecticide resistance in head lice to the over-the-counter pediculocides in England, and the emergence of carbaryl resistance. Downs, A.M., Stafford, K.A., Hunt, L.P., Ravenscroft, J.C., Coles, G.C. Br. J. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparative study of permethrin 1% creme rinse and lindane shampoo for the treatment of head lice. Bowerman, J.G., Gomez, M.P., Austin, R.D., Wold, D.E. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Synergized pyrethrin mousse, a new approach to head lice eradication: efficacy in field and laboratory studies. Burgess, I.F., Brown, C.M., Burgess, N.A. Clinical therapeutics. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparative in vitro pediculicidal efficacy of treatments in a resistant head lice population in the United States. Meinking, T.L., Serrano, L., Hard, B., Entzel, P., Lemard, G., Rivera, E., Villar, M.E. Archives of dermatology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Kinetic disposition of an emulsifiable concentrate formulation of deltamethrin applied to sheep in a plunge-dip and its effect on lice. Johnson, P.W., Darwish, A., Dixon, R., Steel, J.W. Int. J. Parasitol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus capitis, and their treatment. Yoon, K.S., Gao, J.R., Lee, S.H., Clark, J.M., Brown, L., Taplin, D. Archives of dermatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Control of the human head louse with disulfiram and benzyl benzoate emulsions. A laboratory study. Brinck-Lindroth, G., Lundqvist, L., Nilsson, A. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Potential role of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, as vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii. Robinson, D., Leo, N., Prociv, P., Barker, S.C. Parasitol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Prevalence of head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation among inhabitants of the Niger Delta. Arene, F.O., Ukaulor, A.L. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Isoenzymes of human lice: pediculus humanus and P. capitis. Amevigbe, M.D., Ferrer, A., Champorie, S., Monteny, N., Deunff, J., Richard-Lenoble, D. Med. Vet. Entomol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Chemotherapy of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation gamma benzene hexachloride (gamma-BHC) among school children in Szu-Hu District, Yunlin County, Central West Taiwan. Fan, P.C., Chao, D., Lee, K.M., Chan, C.H., Liu, H.Y. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Laboratory studies of susceptibility and resistance to insecticides in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura; Pediculidae). Picollo, M.I., Vassena, C.V., Casadio, A.A., Massimo, J., Zerba, E.N. J. Med. Entomol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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