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MeSH Review

Capillary Leak Syndrome

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Disease relevance of Capillary Leak Syndrome


High impact information on Capillary Leak Syndrome


Chemical compound and disease context of Capillary Leak Syndrome


Biological context of Capillary Leak Syndrome


Anatomical context of Capillary Leak Syndrome


Gene context of Capillary Leak Syndrome

  • Severe capillary leak syndrome has been reported only with IL-4 [19].
  • On the basis of previous results, we undertook a randomised controlled study to investigate the priming with plasma rich in the C4A isotype of complement component 4 on the incidence of capillary leak syndrome in children with C4A deficiency [20].
  • INTERPRETATION: In paediatric patients with C4A deficiency, C4A-rich plasma priming reduces the incidence of CPB-related capillary leak syndrome by blocking the activated C4 increase and attenuating the systemic inflammatory response after CPB [20].
  • These results demonstrate that during treatment with IL-2 and IFN-alpha-2a there are both fluid retention and augmented filtration of fluid from the vascular to the interstitial compartment, but no indication for a capillary leak syndrome [21].
  • The severe side effects usually associated with classical lymphokine-activated killer therapy in association with high doses of interleukin 2, such as "capillary leak syndrome," were absent in this study [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Capillary Leak Syndrome


  1. Administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) results in increased plasma concentrations of IL-5 and eosinophilia in patients with cancer. van Haelst Pisani, C., Kovach, J.S., Kita, H., Leiferman, K.M., Gleich, G.J., Silver, J.E., Dennin, R., Abrams, J.S. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical observations on adoptive immunotherapy with vaccine-primed T-lymphocytes secondarily sensitized to tumor in vitro. Chang, A.E., Yoshizawa, H., Sakai, K., Cameron, M.J., Sondak, V.K., Shu, S. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Activated endothelial cells resist lymphokine-activated killer cell-mediated injury. Possible role of induced cytokines in limiting capillary leak during IL-2 therapy. Mier, J.W., Brandon, E.P., Libby, P., Janicka, M.W., Aronson, F.R. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Control of systemic capillary leak syndrome with aminophylline and terbutaline. Droder, R.M., Kyle, R.A., Greipp, P.R. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphocytic leukemia utilizing total body irradiation followed by high doses of cytosine arabinoside: lack of superiority over cyclophosphamide-containing conditioning regimens. Woods, W.G., Ramsay, N.K., Weisdorf, D.J., Haake, R., Vallera, D.A., Kim, T.H., Lasky, L., Nesbit, M.E., Bostrom, B., Uckun, F. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. C1-inhibitor concentrate for sepsis-related capillary leak syndrome. Nürnberger, W., Göbel, U., Stannigel, H., Eisele, B., Janssen, A., Delvos, U. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Epoprostenol in systemic capillary leak syndrome. Fellows, I.W., Powell, R.J., Toghill, P.J., Williams, T.J., Cohen, G.F. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Treatment of the systemic capillary leak syndrome with terbutaline and theophylline. A case series. Tahirkheli, N.K., Greipp, P.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation with unpurged and purged marrow in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Gorin, N.C., Coiffier, B., Hayat, M., Fouillard, L., Kuentz, M., Flesch, M., Colombat, P., Boivin, P., Slavin, S., Philip, T. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Thalidomide for systemic capillary leak syndrome. Staak, J.O., Glossmann, J.P., Esser, J.M., Diehl, V., Mietz, H., Josting, A. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased thromboxane mediates the adverse renal effects of interleukin-2 in rats. Rubinger, D., Cohen, E., Haviv, Y., Bernheim, J., Shiloni, E., Popovtzer, M.M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Disappearance of pulmonary capillary leak syndrome when intravenous cyclosporine is replaced by oral cyclosporine. Blaauw, A.A., Leunissen, K.M., Cheriex, E.C., Wolters, J., Kootstra, G., Van Hooff, J.P. Transplantation (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Gemcitabine-induced systemic capillary leak syndrome. De Pas, T., Curigliano, G., Franceschelli, L., Catania, C., Spaggiari, L., de Braud, F. Ann. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis. McCourt, M., Wang, J.H., Sookhai, S., Redmond, H.P. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Production of 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolites by peripheral leucocytes in capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). Rondeau, E., Sraer, J., Bens, M., Doleris, L.M., Lacave, R., Sraer, J.D. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Life-threatening capillary leak syndrome after G-CSF mobilization and collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells for allogeneic transplantation. de Azevedo, A.M., Goldberg Tabak, D. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of nitric oxide in IL-2 therapy-induced capillary leak syndrome. Orucevic, A., Lala, P.K. Cancer Metastasis Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Immune dysfunction in the critically ill infant and child. Hauser, G.J., Holbrook, P.R. Critical care clinics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinical toxicity of cytokines used as haemopoietic growth factors. Vial, T., Descotes, J. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Capillary leak syndrome in children with C4A-deficiency undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a double-blind, randomised controlled study. Zhang, S., Wang, S., Li, Q., Yao, S., Zeng, B., Ziegelstein, R.C., Hu, Q. Lancet (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Transcapillary forces of the subcutaneous tissue in patients treated with interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon: no capillary protein leak syndrome? Semb, K.A., Aamdal, S., Fosså, S.D., Oian, P. J. Exp. Ther. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Phase I clinical trial with a human major histocompatibility complex nonrestricted cytotoxic T-cell line (TALL-104) in dogs with advanced tumors. Cesano, A., Visonneau, S., Jeglum, K.A., Owen, J., Wilkinson, K., Carner, K., Reese, L., Santoli, D. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates undergoing cardiac operations. Seghaye, M.C., Grabitz, R.G., Duchateau, J., Busse, S., Däbritz, S., Koch, D., Alzen, G., Hörnchen, H., Messmer, B.J., Von Bernuth, G. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Activation of the complement system during immunotherapy of cancer with interleukin-2: a possible explanation of the capillary leak syndrome. Lissoni, P., Barni, S., Cattaneo, G., Archili, C., Crispino, S., Tancini, G., D'Angelo, L., Magni, S., Fiorelli, G. Int. J. Biol. Markers (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Pulmonary capillary leak associated with methylmethacrylate during general anesthesia. A case report. Safwat, A.M., Dror, A. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
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