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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

RTA  -  RT1 class I gene(A)

Rattus norvegicus

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Disease relevance of RTA

  • We have now examined the toxicity of EGF-RTA and EGF-DTA on cultured hepatocytes [1].
  • We conclude that oral administration of tubular antigen can modulate the intensity of interstitial nephritis produced by immunization, but that the regulatory mechanism is not dependent (at all doses of fed antigen) on suppressed DTH reactivity to RTA or suppressed antigen-specific IgG [2].
  • TNA-alpha (10(6) U/ml, iv) did not produce acute phase hypotension but initially raised arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR), did not increase RNI production by PMN, and inhibited RNI production by A23187 stimulated RTA ex vivo [3].
  • Anti-CD4 mAbs (MRC Ox35) given for 2 weeks after RTA/IFA completely prevented the induction of resistance to HN, all rats developing proteinuria as well as high titers of autoantibody and Ig and C deposits in glomeruli [4].

High impact information on RTA

  • A disulfide-linked conjugate between asialofetuin (ASF) and the toxic A chain (RTA) of ricin is as potent a toxin for cultured rat hepatocytes as our previously described conjugate between ASF and fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA) [1].
  • An RTA conjugate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was a potent toxin for 3T3 cells [1].
  • Rats receiving chronic intraventricular infusions of RTA showed significantly more low affinity NGF receptor immunoreactive (p75NGFR-IR) neurons on the lesioned side than did control animals 2 weeks following unilateral fimbria-fornix lesion [5].
  • An antibody against the extracellular domain of TrkA (RTA) was used as ligand to stimulate internalization and phosphorylation of TrkA [6].
  • Indeed, when saralasin was infused together with either PGE 2 or PGI2 the previously noted effects on delta P, QA, RTA and Kf were largely abolished [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of RTA


Biological context of RTA

  • RESULTS: Histology revealed minimal peritubular and interstitial inflammation in the RTA/CFA group one week after immunization while extensive interstitial inflammation with few preserved superficial nephron was observed three weeks after RTA/CFA immunization [8].
  • Renal histology, inulin clearance, DTH responses to RTA, and IgG antibody responses to RTA were monitored as endpoints of the study [2].
  • We examined the effect of chronic administration of ETOH on Escherichia coli-mediated suppression of relaxation and nitric oxide (NO) production by the rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and gene expression for constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) by the adrenal gland [9].

Anatomical context of RTA


Associations of RTA with chemical compounds

  • These increases in delta P and RTA and decreases in QA and Kf are typical of changes induced by angiotensin II (AII) [7].
  • Thus, saralasin transformed the renal action of PGE2 and PGI2 from vasoconstrictor (low QA, high RTA) to vasodilator (high QA and low RTA) [7].
  • Micropuncture studies on day 7 in the RTA/CFA group revealed a significant reduction in single nephron GFR due to a profound reduction in nephron plasma flow and in the ultrafiltration coefficient [8].
  • To assess the role of increased nitric oxide production secondary to iNOS induction on the glomerular hemodynamic changes observed in the early stages of the disease, the iNOS blocker (l-N(6)-iminoethyl lysine, L-NIL) was administered IV (1 mg/h) in RTA/CFA rats and CFA rats [8].
  • A23187- and ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated in RTA obtained from septic rats, whereas the relaxation to nitroglycerin was slightly enhanced [9].

Other interactions of RTA

  • However, TNF-alpha mediates in part LPS-induced inhibition of RNI production by RTA [3].
  • Identical results were obtained when a specific agonist of the NGF receptor TrkA, the bivalent anti-rat TrkA IgG (RTA), was infused into the cortex in place of NGF [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RTA


  1. Killing of cultured hepatocytes by conjugates of asialofetuin and EGF linked to the A chains of ricin or diphtheria toxin. Simpson, D.L., Cawley, D.B., Herschman, H.R. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Oral feeding of renal tubular antigen abrogates interstitial nephritis and renal failure in Brown Norway rats. Pham, K., Smoyer, W.E., Archer, D.C., Gabbai, F., Kelly, C.J. Kidney Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. In vivo administration of endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha produce different effects on constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in rat neutrophils and aorta ex vivo. Greenberg, S.S., Xie, J., Joseph, K.O., Kolls, J., Summer, W. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of unresponsiveness to Heymann's nephritis: inhibited by monoclonal antibody to CD4 but not to CD8. Quiza, C.G., Leenaerts, P.L., Hall, B.M. Cell. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. TrkA activation is sufficient to rescue axotomized cholinergic neurons. Lucidi-Phillipi, C.A., Clary, D.O., Reichardt, L.F., Gage, F.H. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Trafficking of TrkA-green fluorescent protein chimerae during nerve growth factor-induced differentiation. Jullien, J., Guili, V., Derrington, E.A., Darlix, J.L., Reichardt, L.F., Rudkin, B.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Possible mechanism of prostaglandin-induced renal vasoconstriction in the rat. Schor, N., Brenner, B.M. Hypertension (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of acute iNOS inhibition on glomerular function in tubulointerstitial nephritis. Gabbai, F.B., Hammond, T.C., Thomson, S.C., Khang, S., Kelly, C.J. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Escherichia coli-induced inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation and gene expression and release of nitric oxide is attenuated by chronic alcohol ingestion. Greenberg, S.S., Xie, J., Wang, Y., Malinski, T., Summer, W.R., McDonough, K. Alcohol (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. The involvement of protein kinase C in myosin phosphorylation and force development in rat tail arterial smooth muscle. Weber, L.P., Seto, M., Sasaki, Y., Swärd, K., Walsh, M.P. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. Barker, D.M., Corder, R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Wheat germ agglutinin-ricin A-chain conjugate is neuronotoxic after vagal injection. Oeltmann, T.N., Wiley, R.G. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Endothelin ETA and ETB receptors mediate vascular smooth-muscle contraction. White, D.G., Cannon, T.R., Garratt, H., Mundin, J.W., Sumner, M.J., Watts, I.S. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of nerve growth factor on visual cortical plasticity require afferent electrical activity. Caleo, M., Lodovichi, C., Maffei, L. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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