The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Habenula


Psychiatry related information on Habenula


High impact information on Habenula

  • Nicotine is known to act on presynaptic nAChRs within the habenula of chick to enhance glutamatergic transmission; here we report that a similar mechanism operates in the hippocampus [6].
  • These processes were visualized immunocytochemically in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, with an antiserum against bovine retinal S-antigen and traced as far as the region of the posterior commissure and habenular nuclei [7].
  • Substance P or a peptide similar to it was also observed in cell bodies in the medial habenula and in probable nerve terminals in many brain areas [8].
  • Comparative autoradiography studies of brains of wild-type (wt) and 5-HT5A knockout (5A-KO) mice revealed the existence of binding sites with high affinity for [125I]LSD that correspond to 5-HT5A receptors and that are concentrated in the olfactory bulb, neocortex, and medial habenula [9].
  • In the brain we observe discrete neuronal localizations of D-aspartate, especially in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, the medial habenula, and certain brainstem nuclei [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Habenula

  • In 16-day pregnant, hysterectomized-ovariectomized and estradiol benzoate-treated rats, cytotoxic lesions of the lateral habenula (Lhb) produced severe deficits in maternal behavior (K.P. Corodimas, J.S. Rosenblatt, M.E. Canfield, & J.I. Morrell, 1993) [11].

Biological context of Habenula


Anatomical context of Habenula


Associations of Habenula with chemical compounds

  • Using an antiserum (LR-1) raised against mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), we previously identified a nonneuronal cell that was more numerous in the medial habenula (MH) of courting ring doves than in individuals housed in visual isolation [21].
  • In addition, glucose utilization in ipsilateral lateral habenular nucleus was increased at each of the above time points [22].
  • Reward-blocking doses of the neuroleptic pimozide activated the caudate and the lateral habenula but did not alter any of the unilateral effects of stimulation [23].
  • Tranylcypromine prevented the elevated rate of lateral habenula metabolism seen in each of the models alone but did not significantly affect the rates of global metabolism [24].
  • Stimulant-induced psychosis, the dopamine theory of schizophrenia, and the habenula [25].

Gene context of Habenula

  • Furthermore, in the medial habenula and in the nuclei of the pons, there exists a high density of cells expressing both FGFR1 and FGFR2 (60-100%) [26].
  • The Msx1 mutants display severe hydrocephalus at birth, while the subcommissural organ, the habenula, and the posterior commissure fail to develop correctly [27].
  • AVP levels in the lateral habenula are elevated both on day 16 of pregnancy and on the first day PP [28].
  • However, there are also differences in the expression patterns, for example, high expression of MCHR1 was detected in the lateral habenula, but no expression of MIZIP [29].
  • KChIP1 was expressed in a subpopulation of neurons widely distributed in brain and enriched in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in the reticular thalamic and medial habenular nuclei [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Habenula


  1. Effect of melatonin on cyclic nucleotide content and intensity of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus and habenula of rats exposed to acute hypoxia. Zamorskii, I.I., Pishak, V.P. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. The influence of droperidol, diazepam, and physostigmine on ketamine-induced behavior and brain regional glucose utilization in rat. Oguchi, K., Arakawa, K., Nelson, S.R., Samson, F. Anesthesiology (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Estrogen implants in the lateral habenular nucleus do not stimulate the onset of maternal behavior in female rats. Matthews Felton, T., Linton, L.N., Rosenblatt, J.S., Morrell, J.I. Hormones and behavior. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. A GABAergic habenulo-raphe pathway mediates both serotoninergic and hypnogenic effects of vasotocin in cats. Pavel, S., Eisner, C. Brain Res. Bull. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Changes in motor activities induced by microinjections of the selective dopamine agonists LY 171555, quinpirole hydrochloride, and SK&F 38393 into the habenula nucleus. Thornton, E.W., Evans, J.A., Wickens, A. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Hippocampal synaptic transmission enhanced by low concentrations of nicotine. Gray, R., Rajan, A.S., Radcliffe, K.A., Yakehiro, M., Dani, J.A. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Pinealocyte projections into the mammalian brain revealed with S-antigen antiserum. Korf, H.W., Oksche, A., Ekström, P., Gery, I., Zigler, J.S., Klein, D.C. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Substance p: localization in the central nervous system and in some primary sensory neurons. Hökfelt, T., Kellerth, J.O., Nilsson, G., Pernow, B. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased exploratory activity and altered response to LSD in mice lacking the 5-HT(5A) receptor. Grailhe, R., Waeber, C., Dulawa, S.C., Hornung, J.P., Zhuang, X., Brunner, D., Geyer, M.A., Hen, R. Neuron (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. D-aspartate localizations imply neuronal and neuroendocrine roles. Schell, M.J., Cooper, O.B., Snyder, S.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Lateral habenula neurons are necessary for the hormonal onset of maternal behavior and for the display of postpartum estrus in naturally parturient female rats. Matthews-Felton, T., Corodimas, K.P., Rosenblatt, J.S., Morrell, J.I. Behav. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Ca2+ permeability and kinetics of glutamate receptors in rat medial habenula neurones: implications for purinergic transmission in this nucleus. Robertson, S.J., Burnashev, N., Edwards, F.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of a region from the human cholinergic gene locus that targets expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter to a subset of neurons in the medial habenular nucleus in transgenic mice. Schütz, B., Damadzic, R., Weihe, E., Eiden, L.E. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. The epithalamus of the developing and adult frog: calretinin expression and habenular asymmetry in Rana esculenta. Guglielmotti, V., Cristino, L., Sada, E., Bentivoglio, M. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Anatomical localization and regulation of somatostatin gene expression in the basal ganglia and its clinical implications. Chesselet, M.F., Soghomonian, J.J., Salin, P. Ciba Found. Symp. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro autoradiography of opiate receptors in rat brain suggests loci of "opiatergic" pathways. Herkenham, M., Pert, C.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Levels of mRNA for a putative kainate receptor are affected by seizures. Gall, C., Sumikawa, K., Lynch, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Chronic levodopa treatment alters basal and dopamine agonist-stimulated cerebral glucose utilization. Engber, T.M., Susel, Z., Kuo, S., Chase, T.N. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. DARPP-32, a dopamine- and adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein enriched in dopamine-innervated brain regions. III. Immunocytochemical localization. Ouimet, C.C., Miller, P.E., Hemmings, H.C., Walaas, S.I., Greengard, P. J. Neurosci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Involvement of lateral habenula-dorsal raphe neurons in the differential regulation of striatal and nigral serotonergic transmission cats. Reisine, T.D., Soubrié, P., Artaud, F., Glowinski, J. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Mast cells with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like immunoreactivity in the brain of doves. Silverman, A.J., Millar, R.P., King, J.A., Zhuang, X., Silver, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Metabolic effects of unilateral lesion of the substantia nigra. Wooten, G.F., Collins, R.C. J. Neurosci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Forebrain origins and terminations of the medial forebrain bundle metabolically activated by rewarding stimulation or by reward-blocking doses of pimozide. Gallistel, C.R., Gomita, Y., Yadin, E., Campbell, K.A. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Cerebral correlates of depressed behavior in rats, visualized using 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. Caldecott-Hazard, S., Mazziotta, J., Phelps, M. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Stimulant-induced psychosis, the dopamine theory of schizophrenia, and the habenula. Ellison, G. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparative localization of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, -2, and -3 mRNAs in the rat brain: in situ hybridization analysis. Belluardo, N., Wu, G., Mudo, G., Hansson, A.C., Pettersson, R., Fuxe, K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Msx1 disruption leads to diencephalon defects and hydrocephalus. Ramos, C., Fernández-Llebrez, P., Bach, A., Robert, B., Soriano, E. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Oxytocin and vasopressin immunoreactivity in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sites in late pregnant and postpartum rats. Caldwell, J.D., Greer, E.R., Johnson, M.F., Prange, A.J., Pedersen, C.A. Neuroendocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Immunohistochemical distribution of MIZIP and its co-expression with the Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the adult rodent brain. Francke, F., Richter, D., Bächner, D. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential distribution of KChIPs mRNAs in adult mouse brain. Xiong, H., Kovacs, I., Zhang, Z. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. ATP and glutamate are released from separate neurones in the rat medial habenula nucleus: frequency dependence and adenosine-mediated inhibition of release. Robertson, S.J., Edwards, F.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential corticosteroid regulation of type II glucocorticoid receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system: topography and implications. Ahima, R.S., Harlan, R.E. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus as studied by microdialysis is dependent on axonal impulse flow and increases during behavioural activation. Nilsson, O.G., Kalén, P., Rosengren, E., Björklund, A. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. The sites of origin of dopaminergic afferent fibers to the lateral habenular nucleus in the rat. Li, Y.Q., Takada, M., Shinonaga, Y., Mizuno, N. J. Comp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Characterization of epibatidine binding to medial habenula: potential role in analgesia. Plenge, P., Mellerup, E.T., Wörtwein, G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities