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Gene Review

recA  -  recombinase A

Escherichia coli UTI89

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Disease relevance of recA


Psychiatry related information on recA

  • We describe that although stochastic alignments across poly(dA) and poly(dT) can lead to sub-optimally annealed duplexes containing ssDNA gaps/overhangs, the same are realigned into an optimal frame by a putative motor activity of RecA [Sen et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 10196-10206] [6].

High impact information on recA

  • So far, Escherichia coli RecA appears to be unique among its nearly ubiquitous family of homologous proteins in that it possesses a motorlike activity that can couple the branch movement in DNA strand exchange to ATP hydrolysis [7].
  • RecA is also a multifunctional protein, serving in different biochemical roles for recombinational processes, SOS induction, and mutagenic lesion bypass [7].
  • The bacterial RecA protein and the recombinational DNA repair of stalled replication forks [7].
  • In Escherichia coli, at least two groups of proteins, or "recombination machines," can operate independently on broken DNA to produce a 3'-terminated single-stranded DNA filament coated with RecA protein and ready for synapsis with intact homologous DNA [8].
  • Protein splicing in the maturation of M. tuberculosis recA protein: a mechanism for tolerating a novel class of intervening sequence [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of recA

  • A 3.3-kb DNA fragment of Clostridium acetobutylicum conferred methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), mitomycin C (MC), and UV resistance to recA strains of E. coli when cloned on the pUC19 plasmid [10].
  • In UV-irradiated Escherichia coli, predamaged by thymine-amino acid starvation or a UV predose, a large amount of dimers may remain unexcised and may be tolerated by an error-free mechanism, which requires the function of uvr, recA and lexA genes [11].
  • Repair-deficient and repair-proficient strains of E. coli K12 were sensitive to nitrofurantoin treatment to varying degrees with the double mutant strain (uvrA 6, recA 13) being most sensitive [12].
  • Induction of SOS functions: regulation of proteolytic activity of E. coli RecA protein by interaction with DNA and nucleoside triphosphate [13].
  • In the presence of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP, Escherichia coli recA protein extensively unwinds duplex DNA in a reaction that is strongly stimulated by either homologous or heterologous single-stranded DNA [Cunningham, R.P., Shibata, T., DasGupta, C. & Radding, C.M. (1979) Nature (London) 281, 191-195] [14].

Biological context of recA

  • A deletion of the ykoV gene encoding the B. subtilis Ku protein in a sbcC mutant strain did not resulted in an increase in sensitivity towards MMC and gamma irradiation, but exacerbated the phenotype of a recN or a recA mutant strain [15].
  • After UV-induced DNA damage in Escherichia coli, RecA and several recF pathway proteins are thought to process arrested replication forks and ensure that replication resumes accurately [16].
  • RecA is important for recombination, DNA repair, and SOS induction [17].
  • We investigated the roles of RecA protein, DNA repair, and SOS regulation in B. abortus [1].
  • In Escherichia coli, a relatively low frequency of recombination exchanges (FRE) is predetermined by the activity of RecA protein, as modulated by a complex regulatory program involving both autoregulation and other factors [4].

Anatomical context of recA


Associations of recA with chemical compounds

  • In total, these results suggested that genistein may reduce SOS-dependent mutagenesis by reducing the interaction of RecA protein with ssDNA [22].
  • First, lexA protein can be cleaved in vitro under the same conditions as prevously described for lambda repressor cleavage in a reaction requring both recA protease and ATP or an analogue, adenosine 5'-[lambda-thio]-triphosphate [23].
  • Short sequence tracts composed of alternating guanosine and thymidine nucleotide residues poly[d(GT)-d(CA)] carried in a derivative of pBR322 were recombinogenic in a recA host [24].
  • Incoming ODNs at least 30 nucleotides long cross-linked to a long homologous duplex DNA in the presence of recA and ATP gamma S. Efficient cross-linkage to the complementary recipient strand of the joint occurred preferentially at guanines positioned 5' relative to the appended chlorambucil group [25].
  • The revertion to Met+ was shown to be recA dependent, indicating that homologous plasmid and chromosomal DNA sequences are involved in the integration-excision process [26].

Other interactions of recA

  • We present functional analyses that demonstrated that B. abortus RadA complements a radA defect in E. coli but could not act in place of the B. abortus RecA [1].
  • For both the recA and umuDC promoters, at 30 degrees C the lysis efficiency was found to be consistent and above 60% as measured using beta-galactosidase as the reporter [2].
  • Ultraviolet light induction of recA protein in a recB uvrB mutant of Escherichia coli [27].
  • The recombinant H. pylori RecA protein produced in Escherichia coli strain GC6 (recA-) was 38 kDa in size but inactive in DNA repair, whereas the corresponding protein in H. pylori 69A migrated at the greater apparent molecular weight of approx. 40 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gels [28].
  • The results are interpreted in terms of a revised model in which UmuC protein is envisaged as guiding UmuD' to RecA protein which has recognized and become bound to an appropriate DNA lesion [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of recA


  1. RecA and RadA proteins of Brucella abortus do not perform overlapping protective DNA repair functions following oxidative burst. Roux, C.M., Booth, N.J., Bellaire, B.H., Gee, J.M., Roop, R.M., Kovach, M.E., Tsolis, R.M., Elzer, P.H., Ennis, D.G. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A set of UV-inducible autolytic vectors for high throughput screening. Li, S., Xu, L., Hua, H., Ren, C., Lin, Z. J. Biotechnol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. RecFOR proteins are essential for Pol V-mediated translesion synthesis and mutagenesis. Fujii, S., Isogawa, A., Fuchs, R.P. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Distinguishing characteristics of hyperrecombinogenic RecA protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa acting in Escherichia coli. Baitin, D.M., Bakhlanova, I.V., Kil, Y.V., Cox, M.M., Lanzov, V.A. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Functional characterization of the precursor and spliced forms of RecA protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Kumar, R.A., Vaze, M.B., Chandra, N.R., Vijayan, M., Muniyappa, K. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Real time fluorescence analysis of the RecA filament: implications of base pair fluidity in repeat realignment. Sen, S., Krishnamoorthy, G., Rao, B.J. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The bacterial RecA protein and the recombinational DNA repair of stalled replication forks. Lusetti, S.L., Cox, M.M. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Interchangeable parts of the Escherichia coli recombination machinery. Amundsen, S.K., Smith, G.R. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Protein splicing in the maturation of M. tuberculosis recA protein: a mechanism for tolerating a novel class of intervening sequence. Davis, E.O., Jenner, P.J., Brooks, P.C., Colston, M.J., Sedgwick, S.G. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and sequencing of a chromosomal fragment from Clostridium acetobutylicum strain ABKn8 conferring chemical-damaging agents and UV resistance to E. coli recA strains. Azeddoug, H., Reysset, G. Curr. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. UmuC product contributes to the inhibition of dimer excision produced by thymine-less-amino acid-less pretreatment in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli. Masek, F., Sedliaková, M. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA damage and prophage induction and toxicity of nitrofurantoin in Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae cells. Sengupta, S., Rahman, M.S., Mukherjee, U., Basak, J., Pal, A.K., Chatterjee, S.N. Mutat. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of SOS functions: regulation of proteolytic activity of E. coli RecA protein by interaction with DNA and nucleoside triphosphate. Phizicky, E.M., Roberts, J.W. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Unwinding associated with synapsis of DNA molecules by recA protein. Wu, A.M., Bianchi, M., DasGupta, C., Radding, C.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Bacillus subtilis SbcC protein plays an important role in DNA inter-strand cross-link repair. Mascarenhas, J., Sanchez, H., Tadesse, S., Kidane, D., Krisnamurthy, M., Alonso, J.C., Graumann, P.L. BMC Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Nascent DNA processing by RecJ favors lesion repair over translesion synthesis at arrested replication forks in Escherichia coli. Courcelle, C.T., Chow, K.H., Casey, A., Courcelle, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. UvrD Limits the Number and Intensities of RecA-Green Fluorescent Protein Structures in Escherichia coli K-12. Centore, R.C., Sandler, S.J. J. Bacteriol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. High level expression and refolding of mouse interleukin 4 synthesized in Escherichia coli. Levine, A.D., Rangwala, S.H., Horn, N.A., Peel, M.A., Matthews, B.K., Leimgruber, R.M., Manning, J.A., Bishop, B.F., Olins, P.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Electron microscopic visualization of recA-DNA filaments: evidence for a cyclic extension of duplex DNA. Dunn, K., Chrysogelos, S., Griffith, J. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. The meiosis-specific recombinase hDmc1 forms ring structures and interacts with hRad51. Masson, J.Y., Davies, A.A., Hajibagheri, N., Van Dyck, E., Benson, F.E., Stasiak, A.Z., Stasiak, A., West, S.C. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. A homolog of Escherichia coli RecA protein in plastids of higher plants. Cerutti, H., Osman, M., Grandoni, P., Jagendorf, A.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Genetic analysis of the anti-mutagenic effect of genistein in Escherichia coli. Yang, Y., Fix, D. Mutat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Cleavage of the Escherichia coli lexA protein by the recA protease. Little, J.W., Edmiston, S.H., Pacelli, L.Z., Mount, D.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. RecA independent recombination of poly[d(GT)-d(CA)] in pBR322. Murphy, K.E., Stringer, J.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Sequence-specific covalent modification of DNA by cross-linking oligonucleotides. Catalysis by RecA and implication for the mechanism of synaptic joint formation. Podyminogin, M.A., Meyer, R.B., Gamper, H.B. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Virulence plasmids of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri integrate into a specific site on the host chromosome: integration greatly reduces expression of plasmid-carried virulence genes. Zagaglia, C., Casalino, M., Colonna, B., Conti, C., Calconi, A., Nicoletti, M. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Ultraviolet light induction of recA protein in a recB uvrB mutant of Escherichia coli. Bockrath, R.C., Hanawalt, P.C. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Cloning of the Helicobacter pylori recA gene and functional characterization of its product. Schmitt, W., Odenbreit, S., Heuermann, D., Haas, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli, XX. Overproduction of UmuD' protein results in suppression of the umuC36 mutation in excision defective bacteria. Bates, H., Bridges, B.A., Woodgate, R. Mutat. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. The Azotobacter vinelandii recA gene: sequence analysis and regulation of expression. Venkatesh, T.V., Das, H.K. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. In vivo inactivation of the Streptococcus mutans recA gene mediated by PCR amplification and cloning of a recA DNA fragment. Quivey, R.G., Faustoferri, R.C. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. The stereostructure of knots and catenanes produced by phage lambda integrative recombination: implications for mechanism and DNA structure. Spengler, S.J., Stasiak, A., Cozzarelli, N.R. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Control of UV induction of recA protein. Salles, B., Paoletti, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Nucleosomes on linear duplex DNA allow homologous pairing but prevent strand exchange promoted by RecA protein. Ramdas, J., Mythili, E., Muniyappa, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
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