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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Risk Reduction Behavior

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Disease relevance of Risk Reduction Behavior


Psychiatry related information on Risk Reduction Behavior


High impact information on Risk Reduction Behavior

  • RESULTS: A total of 327 patients in the losartan group reached the primary end point, as compared with 359 in the placebo group (risk reduction, 16 percent; P=0.02) [1].
  • There were 37 deaths that were not preceded by a cerebral end point--22 in the placebo group and 15 in the warfarin group (risk reduction, 0.31; P = 0.19) [10].
  • Ten patients receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (4.7 percent) died, as compared with 21 patients receiving intravenous heparin (9.6 percent), a risk reduction of 51 percent (P = 0.049) [11].
  • For mortality by two years, a major end point specified in the protocol, the risk reduction among patients treated with both hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate was 34 percent (P less than 0.028) [12].
  • We examined the frequency of explicit reporting of the number needed to treat (NNT) and the absolute risk reduction (ARR) in RCTs [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Risk Reduction Behavior

  • Long-term vascular risk reduction has been demonstrated only with sulfonylureas and metformin [14].
  • Intakes of 400 micrograms of folate or more reduced risk of NTDs by 40% among women weighing less than 70 kg, but no risk reduction was observed among heavier women [15].
  • RESULTS: Retinal screening in patients with type 2 diabetes is an effective intervention; however, the risk reduction varies dramatically by age and level of glycemic control [16].
  • The dyslipidaemic profile of diabetes greatly contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the disorder, and evidence from many intervention trials using statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid or a nicotinic acid-statin combination, indicates the substantial cardiovascular risk reduction to be gained from lipid modification [17].
  • However, controlling blood glucose, which until recently had often been the focus of the diabetologist, is only one component of optimal cardiovascular risk reduction [18].

Biological context of Risk Reduction Behavior


Anatomical context of Risk Reduction Behavior


Gene context of Risk Reduction Behavior

  • The purpose of this report is to review the current state of knowledge of BRCA1 and BRCA2, the biology of associated tumors, and possible risk reduction strategies in women with these deleterious mutations [26].
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for cancer surveillance and risk reduction for individuals carrying mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes [27].
  • Selective Cox-2 inhibitors, currently under investigation for cardiovascular risk reduction, may represent a novel therapeutic option for patients with endovascular Cp infection as they target the actuated pathological signal transduction cascade in persistently infected PBMC [28].
  • On the basis of accumulated evidence, the greatest risk reduction with alteplase therapy may be in certain high risk groups, such as those with anterior infarcts, selected elderly patients and those who present late after symptom onset [29].
  • Gastroprotective therapy and risk of gastrointestinal ulcers: risk reduction by COX-2 therapy [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Risk Reduction Behavior


  1. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Brenner, B.M., Cooper, M.E., de Zeeuw, D., Keane, W.F., Mitch, W.E., Parving, H.H., Remuzzi, G., Snapinn, S.M., Zhang, Z., Shahinfar, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. A new reality: achieving cholesterol-lowering goals in clinical practice. Gaw, A. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Cilostazol in secondary prevention of stroke: impact of the Cilostazol Stroke Prevention Study. Matsumoto, M. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of enalapril on myocardial infarction and unstable angina in patients with low ejection fractions. Yusuf, S., Pepine, C.J., Garces, C., Pouleur, H., Salem, D., Kostis, J., Benedict, C., Rousseau, M., Bourassa, M., Pitt, B. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. HIV risk reduction in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study. Woody, G.E., Gallop, R., Luborsky, L., Blaine, J., Frank, A., Salloum, I.M., Gastfriend, D., Crits-Christoph, P. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Influence of lipoproteins on microglial degradation of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein. Cole, G.M., Ard, M.D. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Evaluation of chest pain in the emergency department. Jesse, R.L., Kontos, M.C. Current problems in cardiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk in hypertensives with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study. Reims, H.M., Kjeldsen, S.E., Brady, W.E., Dahlöf, B., Devereux, R.B., Julius, S., Beevers, G., De Faire, U., Fyhrquist, F., Ibsen, H., Kristianson, K., Lederballe-Pedersen, O., Lindholm, L.H., Nieminen, M.S., Omvik, P., Oparil, S., Wedel, H. Journal of human hypertension. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhanced counseling for women undergoing BRCA1/2 testing: impact on subsequent decision making about risk reduction behaviors. Miller, S.M., Roussi, P., Daly, M.B., Buzaglo, J.S., Sherman, K., Godwin, A.K., Balshem, A., Atchison, M.E. Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Warfarin in the prevention of stroke associated with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Veterans Affairs Stroke Prevention in Nonrheumatic Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Ezekowitz, M.D., Bridgers, S.L., James, K.E., Carliner, N.H., Colling, C.L., Gornick, C.C., Krause-Steinrauf, H., Kurtzke, J.F., Nazarian, S.M., Radford, M.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin compared with continuous intravenous heparin in the treatment of proximal-vein thrombosis. Hull, R.D., Raskob, G.E., Pineo, G.F., Green, D., Trowbridge, A.A., Elliott, C.G., Lerner, R.G., Hall, J., Sparling, T., Brettell, H.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. Cohn, J.N., Archibald, D.G., Ziesche, S., Franciosa, J.A., Harston, W.E., Tristani, F.E., Dunkman, W.B., Jacobs, W., Francis, G.S., Flohr, K.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Reporting number needed to treat and absolute risk reduction in randomized controlled trials. Nuovo, J., Melnikow, J., Chang, D. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: scientific review. Inzucchi, S.E. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Prepregnant weight in relation to risk of neural tube defects. Werler, M.M., Louik, C., Shapiro, S., Mitchell, A.A. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Cost-utility analysis of screening intervals for diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vijan, S., Hofer, T.P., Hayward, R.A. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. What is the most effective strategy for managing diabetic dyslipidaemia? Reasner, C.A. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Optimal care of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes patients: shared responsibilities between the cardiologist and diabetologist. Leiter, L.A., Fitchett, D. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Flack, J.M., Sowers, J.R. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Fondaparinux vs enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in major orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of 4 randomized double-blind studies. Turpie, A.G., Bauer, K.A., Eriksson, B.I., Lassen, M.R. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. CYP1A1 Ile462Val and MPO G-463A interact to increase risk of adenocarcinoma but not squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Larsen, J.E., Colosimo, M.L., Yang, I.A., Bowman, R., Zimmerman, P.V., Fong, K.M. Carcinogenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Oral and intravenous ibandronate in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a comprehensive review. Reginster, J.Y. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Diet but not aerobic exercise training reduces skeletal muscle TNF-alpha in overweight humans. Ferrier, K.E., Nestel, P., Taylor, A., Drew, B.G., Kingwell, B.A. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Combination therapy for elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the key to coronary artery disease risk reduction. McKenney, J. Am. J. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Decreased progression to rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases in patients with palindromic rheumatism treated with antimalarials. Gonzalez-Lopez, L., Gamez-Nava, J.I., Jhangri, G., Russell, A.S., Suarez-Almazor, M.E. J. Rheumatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Clinical management of women with genomic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Chang, J., Elledge, R.M. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Recommendations for follow-up care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to cancer. II. BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cancer Genetics Studies Consortium. Burke, W., Daly, M., Garber, J., Botkin, J., Kahn, M.J., Lynch, P., McTiernan, A., Offit, K., Perlman, J., Petersen, G., Thomson, E., Varricchio, C. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Cox-2 inhibition abrogates Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced PGE2 and MMP-1 expression. Rupp, J., Berger, M., Reiling, N., Gieffers, J., Lindschau, C., Haller, H., Dalhoff, K., Maass, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Alteplase. A reappraisal of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in acute myocardial infarction. Gillis, J.C., Wagstaff, A.J., Goa, K.L. Drugs (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Gastroprotective therapy and risk of gastrointestinal ulcers: risk reduction by COX-2 therapy. Wolfe, F., Anderson, J., Burke, T.A., Arguelles, L.M., Pettitt, D. J. Rheumatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Contralateral primary tumors in breast cancer patients in a randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Rutqvist, L.E., Cedermark, B., Glas, U., Mattsson, A., Skoog, L., Somell, A., Theve, T., Wilking, N., Askergren, J., Hjalmar, M.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Breast cancer risk following bilateral oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: an international case-control study. Eisen, A., Lubinski, J., Klijn, J., Moller, P., Lynch, H.T., Offit, K., Weber, B., Rebbeck, T., Neuhausen, S.L., Ghadirian, P., Foulkes, W.D., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Friedman, E., Rennert, G., Wagner, T., Isaacs, C., Kim-Sing, C., Ainsworth, P., Sun, P., Narod, S.A. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. Rebbeck, T.R., Friebel, T., Lynch, H.T., Neuhausen, S.L., van 't Veer, L., Garber, J.E., Evans, G.R., Narod, S.A., Isaacs, C., Matloff, E., Daly, M.B., Olopade, O.I., Weber, B.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Hart, R.G., Sherman, D.G., Easton, J.D., Cairns, J.A. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy and stroke risk reduction: an analysis of clinical trials data. Crouse, J.R., Byington, R.P., Furberg, C.D. Atherosclerosis (1998) [Pubmed]
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