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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Glycemic Index

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Disease relevance of Glycemic Index


High impact information on Glycemic Index

  • DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: We searched MEDLINE through May 2002 for epidemiologic and clinical investigations of major dietary factors (fat, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, carbohydrates, glycemic index, fiber, folate, specific foods, and dietary patterns) and CHD [6].
  • We used frequency of intake of individual foods as reported on a food-frequency questionnaire in 1980 to calculate sucrose, fructose, and carbohydrate intakes; glycemic index (postprandial blood glucose response as compared with a reference food); and glycemic load (glycemic index multiplied by carbohydrate content) [7].
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In ecological studies, average dietary glycemic index (a measure of the postprandial glycemic potential of carbohydrates) and glycemic load (average glycemic index x amount of carbohydrate) predicts coronary infarct and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein [1].
  • Dietary glycemic index was positively associated with CRP (P for trend = 0.04) and TNF-R2 (P for trend = 0.0008) levels [8].
  • CONCLUSION: Fermentable carbohydrates, independent of their effect on a food's glycemic index, have the potential to regulate postprandial responses to a second meal by reducing NEFA competition for glucose disposal and, to a minor extent, by affecting intestinal motility [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Glycemic Index


Biological context of Glycemic Index


Anatomical context of Glycemic Index

  • Most cereal products, however, tend to have a high glycemic index Cereals such as Prowashonupana barley or fractions of oat bran are particularly high in the soluble fiber beta-glucan, which when taken with a meal increases the viscosity of the meal bolus once it has reached the small intestine, where the absorption of nutrients occurs [17].
  • We conclude that in both normal and diabetic rats, the chronic replacement of a high glycemic index starch by a low glycemic index one in a mixed diet increases insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation, decreases glucose incorporation into total lipids and decreases epididymal adipocyte diameter [18].
  • The effects of pre-exercise high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on blood leukocyte redistribution, IL-6, and hormonal responses during a subsequent prolonged exercise [19].

Associations of Glycemic Index with chemical compounds

  • The effect of sucrose additions on glycemic index and insulin response to butter beans was determined in control subjects [20].
  • Because of the low glycemic index of fructose, fructose may be an alternative as a sweetener for those diabetic patients who like sweet foods but are liable to high postprandial glucose concentrations [21].
  • Reduction in the mean glycemic index (GI) of diets of 12 hyperlipidemic patients from 82 +/- 1 to 69 +/- 2 units (p less than 0.001) for a 1 mo period resulted in a significant reduction in total and LDL serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride by comparison with the mean lipid values for the preceding and following control months [22].
  • The glycemic index was found to correlate negatively with the phytic acid content of the food tested [23].
  • RESULTS: Glycemic indices did not show any significant changes during the study, whereas fasting labile HbA, and glycosylated proteins decreased significantly after 1 and 2 mo in patients on vitamin E administration [24].

Gene context of Glycemic Index


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glycemic Index


  1. Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia and cardiovascular disease. Dickinson, S., Brand-Miller, J. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Glycemic index and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among us adults. Ford, E.S., Liu, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Glycemic and insulinemic responses after ingestion of ethnic foods by NIDDM and healthy subjects. Indar-Brown, K., Noreberg, C., Madar, Z. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Low glycemic index foods and reduced glucose, amino acid, and endocrine responses in cirrhosis. Jenkins, D.J., Shapira, N., Greenberg, G., Jenkins, A.L., Collier, G.R., Poduch, C., Wolever, T.M., Anderson, G.H., Blendis, L.M. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate, sugar, and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. Michaud, D.S., Fuchs, C.S., Liu, S., Willett, W.C., Colditz, G.A., Giovannucci, E. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. Hu, F.B., Willett, W.C. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Dietary sugar, glycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study. Michaud, D.S., Liu, S., Giovannucci, E., Willett, W.C., Colditz, G.A., Fuchs, C.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Qi, L., van Dam, R.M., Liu, S., Franz, M., Mantzoros, C., Hu, F.B. Diabetes Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect. Brighenti, F., Benini, L., Del Rio, D., Casiraghi, C., Pellegrini, N., Scazzina, F., Jenkins, D.J., Vantini, I. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and colon cancer: a review of the evidence. Giovannucci, E. J. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Serum fructosamine and colorectal adenomas. Misciagna, G., De Michele, G., Guerra, V., Cisternino, A.M., Di Leo, A., Freudenheim, J.L. Eur. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Willett, W., Manson, J., Liu, S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Liese, A.D., Schulz, M., Fang, F., Wolever, T.M., D'Agostino, R.B., Sparks, K.C., Mayer-Davis, E.J. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. A high glycemic index starch diet affects lipid storage-related enzymes in normal and to a lesser extent in diabetic rats. Kabir, M., Rizkalla, S.W., Quignard-Boulangé, A., Guerre-Millo, M., Boillot, J., Ardouin, B., Luo, J., Slama, G. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion, glucose kinetics, and muscle glycogen use: effect of the glycemic index. Febbraio, M.A., Keenan, J., Angus, D.J., Campbell, S.E., Garnham, A.P. J. Appl. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Glycemic index of cracked corn, oat groats and rolled barley in horses. Jose-Cunilleras, E., Taylor, L.E., Hinchcliff, K.W. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes. A review with special emphasis on cereals rich in beta-glucan. Würsch, P., Pi-Sunyer, F.X. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Dietary amylose-amylopectin starch content affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipocytes of normal and diabetic rats. Kabir, M., Rizkalla, S.W., Champ, M., Luo, J., Boillot, J., Bruzzo, F., Slama, G. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of pre-exercise high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on blood leukocyte redistribution, IL-6, and hormonal responses during a subsequent prolonged exercise. Li, T.L., Wu, C.L., Gleeson, M., Williams, C. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of graded sucrose additions on taste preference, acceptability, glycemic index, and insulin response to butter beans. Vorster, H.H., van Tonder, E., Kotzé, J.P., Walker, A.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Fructose in the diabetic diet. Uusitupa, M.I. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Low glycemic index carbohydrate foods in the management of hyperlipidemia. Jenkins, D.J., Wolever, T.M., Kalmusky, J., Giudici, S., Giordano, C., Wong, G.S., Bird, J.N., Patten, R., Hall, M., Buckley, G. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of phytic acid on in vitro rate of starch digestibility and blood glucose response. Yoon, J.H., Thompson, L.U., Jenkins, D.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Vitamin E reduction of protein glycosylation in diabetes. New prospect for prevention of diabetic complications? Ceriello, A., Giugliano, D., Quatraro, A., Donzella, C., Dipalo, G., Lefebvre, P.J. Diabetes Care (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. The glycemic index of foods influences postprandial insulin-like growth factor-binding protein responses in lean young subjects. Brand-Miller, J.C., Liu, V., Petocz, P., Baxter, R.C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, cereal fiber, and plasma adiponectin concentration in diabetic men. Qi, L., Rimm, E., Liu, S., Rifai, N., Hu, F.B. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Metabolic improvement of poorly controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus decreases bone turnover. Okazaki, R., Totsuka, Y., Hamano, K., Ajima, M., Miura, M., Hirota, Y., Hata, K., Fukumoto, S., Matsumoto, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Augustin, L.S., Dal Maso, L., La Vecchia, C., Parpinel, M., Negri, E., Vaccarella, S., Kendall, C.W., Jenkins, D.J., Francesch, S. Ann. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of high- and low-glycemic index energy restricted diets on plasma lipid and glucose profiles in type 2 diabetic subjects with varying glycemic control. Heilbronn, L.K., Noakes, M., Clifton, P.M. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (2002) [Pubmed]
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