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Gene Review

ADIPOQ  -  adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 30 kDa adipocyte complement-related protein, ACDC, ACRP30, ADIPQTL1, ADPN, ...
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Disease relevance of ADIPOQ


Psychiatry related information on ADIPOQ


High impact information on ADIPOQ

  • Conversely, adiponectin-deficient mice exhibit insulin resistance and diabetes [13].
  • Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein; Acrp30) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that acts as an antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine [13].
  • Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects [13].
  • We showed that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin and mediate increased AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligand activities, and glucose uptake and fatty-acid oxidation by adiponectin [14].
  • In fact, obesity-linked down-regulation of adiponectin was a mechanism whereby obesity could cause insulin resistance and diabetes [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of ADIPOQ


Biological context of ADIPOQ

  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to examine whether genetic variation in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 may contribute to increased susceptibility to components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) [19].
  • RESULTS: Of the eight SNPs examined in the ADIPOQ gene, rs4632532 and rs182052 exhibited significant associations with BMI (p=0.029 and p=0.032), fasting specific insulin (p=0.023 and p=0.026), sum of skin folds (SS) (p=0.0089 and p=0.0084) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) (p=0.015 and p=0.016) [19].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 in Mexican American subjects (N=439) and performed an association analysis of IRS-related traits [19].
  • CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results provide evidence for association of SNPs in ADIPOQ and its receptors with multiple IRS-related phenotypes [19].
  • Subjects carrying the minor ADIPOQ allele (G allele) who were rare homozygotes (C/C) for the ADIPOR1 SNP had a higher RQ (P = 0.003) and greater overall (P < 0.03) and abdominal (P < 0.05) adiposity than did persons with other genotype combinations [1].

Anatomical context of ADIPOQ

  • Recently, we have cloned adiponectin receptors in the skeletal muscle (AdipoR1) and liver (AdipoR2), which appear to comprise a novel cell-surface receptor family [14].
  • Obesity decreased expression levels of AdipoR1/R2, thereby reducing adiponectin sensitivity, which finally leads to insulin resistance, the so-called "vicious cycle." Most recently, we showed that osmotin, which is a ligand for the yeast homolog of AdipoR (PHO36), activated AMPK via AdipoR in C2C12 myocytes [14].
  • Adiponectin is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue and is abundantly present in the circulation, with important effects on metabolism [20].
  • When men and women with a BMI <30 kg/m(2) were compared, women had a twofold higher percent body fat, yet their plasma adiponectin levels were 65% higher (8.6 +/- 1.1 and 14.2 +/- 1.6 micro g/ml in men and women, respectively; P < 0.02) [21].
  • Bovine aortic endothelial cells in primary culture loaded with the NO-specific fluorescent dye 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 DA) were treated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) (a calcium-releasing agonist) or adiponectin (10 microg/ml bacterially produced full-length adiponectin) [22].

Associations of ADIPOQ with chemical compounds

  • Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects and ameliorates insulin resistance in mice [13].
  • Conversely, adiponectin and leptin were directly and inversely correlated, respectively, with VLDL apoB catabolism and HDL cholesterol concentration (P < 0.05) [23].
  • In univariate regression, plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations were inversely and directly associated, respectively, with plasma triglyceride; HOMA score; and visceral, subcutaneous, and total ATMs [23].
  • Our aim was to study the effects of troglitazone on adiponectin levels in lean, obese, and diabetic subjects [24].
  • Our findings show that TZD treatment increased adiponectin levels in all subjects, including normal subjects in which no other effects of TZDs are observed [24].
  • With increasing BMI, girls showed steeper declines in HDL cholesterol (P = 0.01 for interaction) and adiponectin levels (P = 0.0005 for interaction) and a steeper increase in triglyceride levels (P = 0.009 for interaction) compared with boys [25].
  • Stimulation of synovial fibroblasts with adiponectin activated IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKK alpha/beta), IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser (276), p65 and p50 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, and kappaB-luciferase activity [26].
  • Plasma adiponectin was related to glucose and fat oxidation in younger subjects [27].
  • In 24 Ab+ relatives sampled fasted, adiponectin levels correlated significantly with homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (p = 0.006) [28].

Physical interactions of ADIPOQ


Regulatory relationships of ADIPOQ


Other interactions of ADIPOQ


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ADIPOQ

  • Baseline adiponectin levels were significantly lower in the diabetic than the lean subjects (9.0 +/- 1.7 vs. 16.7 +/- 2.7 micro g/ml, P = 0.03) and rose uniformly in all subjects (12.2 +/- 2.3 vs. 25.7 +/- 2.6 micro g/ml, P < 10(-4)) after treatment, with no significant difference detected among the three groups [24].
  • METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay, Western blotting, radioligand binding and immunofluorescent analyses were applied to demonstrate the expression, secretion and functionality of placental adiponectin [3].
  • The effects of recombinant adiponectin on osteoclasts formation also were examined in the co-culture systems of osteoblast and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) systems or purified CD14 + PBMCs cultures [34].
  • The complex aetiology of Type 2 diabetes, which probably involves a medley of molecular mechanisms, requires dissection out of diabetes-associated subphenotypes, such as the non-obese with increased liver fat or the obese with low plasma adiponectin [45].
  • MS+ subjects had significantly lower adiponectin (7.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 10.4 +/- 0.6 microg/ml; P = 0.003) and significantly higher TNF-alpha (3.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.3 pg/ml; P = 0.004) levels compared with MS- subjects matched for age and body mass index [5].


  1. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor gene variants in relation to resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and adiposity-related phenotypes in the Quebec Family Study. Loos, R.J., Ruchat, S., Rankinen, T., Tremblay, A., P??russe, L., Bouchard, C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered fat differentiation and adipocytokine expression are inter-related and linked to morphological changes and insulin resistance in HIV-1-infected lipodystrophic patients. Jan, V., Cervera, P., Maachi, M., Baudrimont, M., Kim, M., Vidal, H., Girard, P.M., Levan, P., Rozenbaum, W., Lombès, A., Capeau, J., Bastard, J.P. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Secretion of adiponectin by human placenta: differential modulation of adiponectin and its receptors by cytokines. Chen, J., Tan, B., Karteris, E., Zervou, S., Digby, J., Hillhouse, E.W., Vatish, M., Randeva, H.S. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypoadiponectinaemia and high risk of type 2 diabetes are associated with adiponectin-encoding (ACDC) gene promoter variants in morbid obesity: evidence for a role of ACDC in diabesity. Vasseur, F., Helbecque, N., Lobbens, S., Vasseur-Delannoy, V., Dina, C., Clément, K., Boutin, P., Kadowaki, T., Scherer, P.E., Froguel, P. Diabetologia (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Adiponectin, inflammation, and the expression of the metabolic syndrome in obese individuals: the impact of rapid weight loss through caloric restriction. Xydakis, A.M., Case, C.C., Jones, P.H., Hoogeveen, R.C., Liu, M.Y., Smith, E.O., Nelson, K.W., Ballantyne, C.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin in breast cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies. Körner, A., Pazaitou-Panayiotou, K., Kelesidis, T., Kelesidis, I., Williams, C.J., Kaprara, A., Bullen, J., Neuwirth, A., Tseleni, S., Mitsiades, N., Kiess, W., Mantzoros, C.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Human adiponectin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human endometrial carcinoma cells, HEC-1-A and RL95 2. Cong, L., Gasser, J., Zhao, J., Yang, B., Li, F., Zhao, A.Z. Endocr. Relat. Cancer (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Serum adiponectin and resistin concentrations in patients with restrictive and binge/purge form of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Housova, J., Anderlova, K., Krizová, J., Haluzikova, D., Kremen, J., Kumstyrová, T., Papezová, H., Haluzik, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Adiponectin Oligomers in Human Serum during Acute and Chronic Exercise: Relation to Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity. Bobbert, T., Wegewitz, U., Brechtel, L., Freudenberg, M., Mai, K., M??hlig, M., Diederich, S., Ristow, M., Rochlitz, H., Pfeiffer, A.F., Spranger, J. International journal of sports medicine (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Adiponectin and future coronary heart disease events among men with type 2 diabetes. Schulze, M.B., Shai, I., Rimm, E.B., Li, T., Rifai, N., Hu, F.B. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Adiponectin in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Tagami, T., Satoh, N., Usui, T., Yamada, K., Shimatsu, A., Kuzuya, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Adipocyte-derived hormones in heroin addicts: the influence of methadone maintenance treatment. Housová, J., Wilczek, H., Haluzík, M.M., Kremen, J., Krízová, J., Haluzík, M. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J., Ito, Y., Tsuchida, A., Yokomizo, T., Kita, S., Sugiyama, T., Miyagishi, M., Hara, K., Tsunoda, M., Murakami, K., Ohteki, T., Uchida, S., Takekawa, S., Waki, H., Tsuno, N.H., Shibata, Y., Terauchi, Y., Froguel, P., Tobe, K., Koyasu, S., Taira, K., Kitamura, T., Shimizu, T., Nagai, R., Kadowaki, T. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. Kadowaki, T., Yamauchi, T. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Adiponectin is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in patients with stable exertional angina. Maruyoshi, H., Kojima, S., Funahashi, T., Miyamoto, S., Hokamaki, J., Soejima, H., Sakamoto, T., Kawano, H., Yoshimura, M., Kitagawa, A., Matsuzawa, Y., Ogawa, H. Thromb. Haemost. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist increases plasma adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with proteinuria. Yilmaz, M.I., Sonmez, A., Caglar, K., Gok, D.E., Eyileten, T., Yenicesu, M., Acikel, C., Bingol, N., Kilic, S., Oguz, Y., Vural, A. Endocrine (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Common Polymorphisms in the Adiponectin Gene ACDC Are Not Associated With Diabetes in Pima Indians. Vozarova de Courten, B., Hanson, R.L., Funahashi, T., Lindsay, R.S., Matsuzawa, Y., Tanaka, S., Thameem, F., Gruber, J.D., Froguel, P., Wolford, J.K. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: a randomised, crossover trial. Joosten, M.M., Beulens, J.W., Kersten, S., Hendriks, H.F. Diabetologia (2008) [Pubmed]
  19. Association between variants in the genes for adiponectin and its receptors with insulin resistance syndrome (IRS)-related phenotypes in Mexican Americans. Richardson, D.K., Schneider, J., Fourcaudot, M.J., Rodriguez, L.M., Arya, R., Dyer, T.D., Almasy, L., Blangero, J., Stern, M.P., Defronzo, R.A., Duggirala, R., Jenkinson, C.P. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity. Yildiz, B.O., Suchard, M.A., Wong, M.L., McCann, S.M., Licinio, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Adiponectin expression from human adipose tissue: relation to obesity, insulin resistance, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Kern, P.A., Di Gregorio, G.B., Lu, T., Rassouli, N., Ranganathan, G. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Adiponectin stimulates production of nitric oxide in vascular endothelial cells. Chen, H., Montagnani, M., Funahashi, T., Shimomura, I., Quon, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Adipocytokines and VLDL metabolism: independent regulatory effects of adiponectin, insulin resistance, and fat compartments on VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics? Ng, T.W., Watts, G.F., Farvid, M.S., Chan, D.C., Barrett, P.H. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of thiazolidinediones on plasma adiponectin levels in normal, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Yu, J.G., Javorschi, S., Hevener, A.L., Kruszynska, Y.T., Norman, R.A., Sinha, M., Olefsky, J.M. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Sex-discordant associations with adiponectin levels and lipid profiles in children. Ong, K.K., Frystyk, J., Flyvbjerg, A., Petry, C.J., Ness, A., Dunger, D.B. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Adiponectin enhances IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblast via an AdipoR1 receptor, AMPK, p38, and NF-kappa B pathway. Tang, C.H., Chiu, Y.C., Tan, T.W., Yang, R.S., Fu, W.M. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Relationships of plasma adiponectin level and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 gene expression to insulin sensitivity and glucose and fat metabolism in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Storgaard, H., Poulsen, P., Ling, C., Groop, L., Vaag, A.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Adiponectin levels do not predict clinical onset of type 1 diabetes in antibody-positive relatives. Truyen, I., De Grijse, J., Van Schravendijk, C., De Smet, D., Decochez, K., Vandemeulebroucke, E., Giri, M., Keymeulen, B., Mathieu, C., Van Gaal, L., De Pauw, P., Weets, I., Pipeleers, D.G., Gorus, F.K. Diabetologia (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, inhibits endothelial NF-kappaB signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway. Ouchi, N., Kihara, S., Arita, Y., Okamoto, Y., Maeda, K., Kuriyama, H., Hotta, K., Nishida, M., Takahashi, M., Muraguchi, M., Ohmoto, Y., Nakamura, T., Yamashita, S., Funahashi, T., Matsuzawa, Y. Circulation (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. APPL1 binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates adiponectin signalling and function. Mao, X., Kikani, C.K., Riojas, R.A., Langlais, P., Wang, L., Ramos, F.J., Fang, Q., Christ-Roberts, C.Y., Hong, J.Y., Kim, R.Y., Liu, F., Dong, L.Q. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential BBB interactions of three ingestive peptides: obestatin, ghrelin, and adiponectin. Pan, W., Tu, H., Kastin, A.J. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Adiponectin inhibits the binding of low-density lipoprotein to biglycan, a vascular proteoglycan. Kobayashi, K., Inoguchi, T., Sonoda, N., Sekiguchi, N., Nawata, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Identification of amino-terminal region of adiponectin as a physiologically functional domain. Ujiie, H., Oritani, K., Kato, H., Yokota, T., Takahashi, I., Maeda, T., Masaie, H., Ichii, M., Kamada, Y., Tamura, S., Kihara, S., Funahashi, T., Tomiyama, Y., Kanakura, Y. J. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Adiponectin Stimulates RANKL and Inhibits OPG Expression in Human Osteoblasts Through the MAPK Signaling Pathway. Luo, X.H., Guo, L.J., Xie, H., Yuan, L.Q., Wu, X.P., Zhou, H.D., Liao, E.Y. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Increased expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 in HALS: implications for reduced adiponectin expression and plasma levels. Lihn, A.S., Richelsen, B., Pedersen, S.B., Haugaard, S.B., Rathje, G.S., Madsbad, S., Andersen, O. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Inhibition by adiponectin of IL-8 production by human macrophages upon coculturing with late apoptotic cells. Saijo, S., Nagata, K., Nakano, Y., Tobe, T., Kobayashi, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Adiponectin activates c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Miyazaki, T., Bub, J.D., Uzuki, M., Iwamoto, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Increase in adiponectin levels during pioglitazone therapy in relation to glucose control, insulin resistance as well as ghrelin and resistin levels. Otto, C., Otto, B., Göke, B., Pfeiffer, A.F., Lehrke, M., Vogeser, M., Spranger, J., Parhofer, K.G. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Adiponectin inhibits steatotic CD95/Fas up-regulation by hepatocytes: therapeutic implications for hepatitis C. Wedemeyer, I., Bechmann, L.P., Odenthal, M., Jochum, C., Marquitan, G., Drebber, U., Gerken, G., Gieseler, R.K., Dienes, H.P., Canbay, A. J. Hepatol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  40. Beyond insulin resistance in NASH: TNF-alpha or adiponectin? Hui, J.M., Hodge, A., Farrell, G.C., Kench, J.G., Kriketos, A., George, J. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. Visceral fat adipokine secretion is associated with systemic inflammation in obese humans. Fontana, L., Eagon, J.C., Trujillo, M.E., Scherer, P.E., Klein, S. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  42. Adiponectin receptor 1 gene (ADIPOR1) as a candidate for type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Wang, H., Zhang, H., Jia, Y., Zhang, Z., Craig, R., Wang, X., Elbein, S.C. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Macrophage-conditioned medium inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 and human abdominal preadipocytes. Constant, V.A., Gagnon, A., Landry, A., Sorisky, A. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  44. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by adiponectin rescues salivary gland epithelial cells from spontaneous and interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis. Katsiougiannis, S., Tenta, R., Skopouli, F.N. Arthritis Rheum. (2010) [Pubmed]
  45. Control of glycaemia: from molecules to men. Minkowski Lecture 2003. Stumvoll, M. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
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