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MeSH Review

Restraint, Physical

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Disease relevance of Restraint, Physical


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Biological context of Restraint, Physical


Anatomical context of Restraint, Physical


Associations of Restraint, Physical with chemical compounds

  • The utility of this analytical system is demonstrated by the quantitative on-line continuous assay of changes in dialysate striatal extracellular glucose and lactate from a conscious rat during (a) local stimulation of neurons by perfusion with the depolarizing agent, Veratridine, and (b) physical restraint [16].
  • Using ribonuclease protection assays, we found that, in addition to the injection of LPS or corticosterone, physical restraint caused a decrease in CRF R2beta mRNA levels in the rat heart and aorta [17].
  • Physical immobilization increased circulating beta-END-LI six-fold and pretreatment with dopamine receptor agonists (bromocriptine or pergolide) significantly attenuated this rise without affecting plasma beta-END-LI levels in non-stressed animals [18].
  • Morphine (5 mg/kg) and diazepam (5 mg/kg) together, but neither alone, significantly reduced the rise in plasma beta-END-LI due to physical immobilization or foot shock [19].
  • Gentle handling, produced an additional increase in EPI only, whereas physical immobilization, produced massive elevations of circulating levels of both EPI and NE [20].

Gene context of Restraint, Physical

  • Central administration of the CRH receptor antagonist astressin blocked the increase in waking after physical restraint, but not during the period of restraint itself [21].
  • We have confirmed this by showing that rats exposed to electric footshock, physical restraint, or a conditioned aversive stimulus have increased levels of plasma IL-6 [22].
  • Effects of aggressive encounters and physical restraint on plasma LH were not therefore due to reduced pituitary responsiveness to LHRH or to increased plasma concentrations of cortisol [23].
  • These results indicate that testosterone inhibits the basal activity of tuberoinfundibular DA neurons and blocks the inhibitory effects of physical restraint on these neurons, but does not alter the ability of these neurons to respond to delayed activation by prolactin [24].
  • INTERVENTION AND MEASUREMENTS: An initiative to reduce physical restraint began in March of 1990 with formation of a Restraint Review Committee (RRC), which developed and guided a program of inservice education, policy change, and procedural innovation [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Restraint, Physical


  1. Phencyclidine intoxication, physical restraint, and acute renal failure: case report. Lahmeyer, H.W., Stock, P.G. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Stress-induced glucocorticoid response modulates mononuclear cell trafficking during an experimental influenza viral infection. Hermann, G., Beck, F.M., Sheridan, J.F. J. Neuroimmunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Factors associated with excited delirium deaths in police custody. Ross, D.L. Mod. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Heat-stressed rat: effects of atropine, desalivation, or restraint. Hubbard, R.W., Matthew, C.B., Francesconi, R. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Rapid-acting IM ziprasidone in a psychiatric emergency service: a naturalistic study. Preval, H., Klotz, S.G., Southard, R., Francis, A. General hospital psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of early cytokine responses and an interleukin (IL)-6-dependent pathway of endogenous glucocorticoid induction during murine cytomegalovirus infection. Ruzek, M.C., Miller, A.H., Opal, S.M., Pearce, B.D., Biron, C.A. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Receptor tyrosine kinase specific for the skeletal muscle lineage: expression in embryonic muscle, at the neuromuscular junction, and after injury. Valenzuela, D.M., Stitt, T.N., DiStefano, P.S., Rojas, E., Mattsson, K., Compton, D.L., Nuñez, L., Park, J.S., Stark, J.L., Gies, D.R. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurohumoral pathways mediating stress-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion in rats. Lenz, H.J., Drüge, G. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion during stress by corticotropin-releasing factor and beta-endorphin. Lenz, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Measurement of tumor cell cohesion and suppression of invasion by E- or P-cadherin. Foty, R.A., Steinberg, M.S. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Reversal of stress-induced pregnancy blocks in mice by progesterone and metyrapone. MacNiven, E., de Catanzaro, D. Physiol. Behav. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Modification of local anesthetic toxicity by vasoconstrictors. Taylor, S.E., Dorris, R.L. Anesthesia progress. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. The effects of short-term physical restraint and isoflurane anesthesia on hematology and plasma biochemistry in the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus). Heard, D.J., Huft, V.J. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Centrally administered vasopressin modifies stress hormone (cortisol, prolactin) secretion in sheep under basal conditions, during restraint and following intravenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Matthews, S.G., Parrott, R.F. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Splenic red cell sequestration and blood volume measurements in conscious pigs. Hannon, J.P., Bossone, C.A., Rodkey, W.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Plastic film carbon electrodes: enzymatic modification for on-line, continuous, and simultaneous measurement of lactate and glucose using microdialysis sampling. Osborne, P.G., Niwa, O., Yamamoto, K. Anal. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 beta messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat cardiovascular system by urocortin, glucocorticoids, and cytokines. Kageyama, K., Gaudriault, G.E., Bradbury, M.J., Vale, W.W. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Dopaminergic inhibition of pituitary beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity secretion in the rat. Farah, J.M., Malcolm, D.S., Mueller, G.P. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence that a benzodiazepine receptor mechanism regulates the secretion of pituitary beta-endorphin in rats. Maiewski, S.F., Larscheid, P., Cook, J.M., Mueller, G.P. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Plasma catecholamine concentrations in unanesthetized rats during sleep, wakefulness, immobilization and after decapitation. Popper, C.W., Chiueh, C.C., Kopin, I.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in stressor-induced alterations of sleep in rat. Chang, F.C., Opp, M.R. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Exposure to physical and psychological stressors elevates plasma interleukin 6: relationship to the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Zhou, D., Kusnecov, A.W., Shurin, M.R., DePaoli, M., Rabin, B.S. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of acute stress on the patterns of LH secretion in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). O'Byrne, K.T., Lunn, S.F., Dixson, A.F. J. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of testosterone in the regulation of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the male rat. Toney, T.W., Lookingland, K.J., Moore, K.E. Neuroendocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Progress toward a restraint-free environment in a large academic nursing facility. Levine, J.M., Marchello, V., Totolos, E. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Influence of chemical immobilization and physical restraint on steroid hormone levels in blood of white-tailed deer. Wesson, J.A., Scanlon, P.F., Kirkpatrick, R.L., Mosby, H.S., Butcher, R.L. Can. J. Zool. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Keratin immobilized on silica as a new stationary phase for chromatographic modelling of skin permeation. Turowski, M., Kaliszan, R. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1997) [Pubmed]
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