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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Fetal Growth Retardation

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Disease relevance of Fetal Growth Retardation


Psychiatry related information on Fetal Growth Retardation


High impact information on Fetal Growth Retardation


Chemical compound and disease context of Fetal Growth Retardation


Biological context of Fetal Growth Retardation


Anatomical context of Fetal Growth Retardation

  • Ribonucleotide protection assays showed no significant change in the expression of Ang-2 mRNA between gestationally matched normal and IUGR placentas; however, immunoblots revealed that Ang-2 protein was significantly decreased in IUGR, suggesting that this may contribute to the abnormal development of the villous vasculature [24].
  • When compared to controls, female offspring of our IUGR rat model exhibit higher expression (mRNA) of ANP and the atrial isoform of the myosin light chain, lower levels of Na+,K+-ATPase beta1 protein, increased cardiomyocyte depth and volume, increased sarcomere length, diminished cardiomyocyte contractility and lower aconitase activity [25].
  • Fetuses with IUGR therefore may benefit from arginine supplementation [26].
  • Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein with normal amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein was found to be associated with an increased incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and nonneural tube congenital anomalies [27].
  • The aim of this study was to compare the fetal/maternal (F/M) leucine-enrichment ratio in normal (AGA) and intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) pregnancies at the time of fetal blood sampling (FBS) [28].

Gene context of Fetal Growth Retardation


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fetal Growth Retardation


  1. Altered expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in placentas from pregnant women with preeclampsia and/or intrauterine fetal growth retardation. Estellés, A., Gilabert, J., Keeton, M., Eguchi, Y., Aznar, J., Grancha, S., Espña, F., Loskutoff, D.J., Schleef, R.R. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Pex13 inactivation in the mouse disrupts peroxisome biogenesis and leads to a Zellweger syndrome phenotype. Maxwell, M., Bjorkman, J., Nguyen, T., Sharp, P., Finnie, J., Paterson, C., Tonks, I., Paton, B.C., Kay, G.F., Crane, D.I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy? Rossing, P., Tarnow, L., Nielsen, F.S., Hansen, B.V., Brenner, B.M., Parving, H.H. Diabetes (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Permanent neonatal diabetes caused by glucokinase deficiency: inborn error of the glucose-insulin signaling pathway. Njølstad, P.R., Sagen, J.V., Bjørkhaug, L., Odili, S., Shehadeh, N., Bakry, D., Sarici, S.U., Alpay, F., Molnes, J., Molven, A., Søvik, O., Matschinsky, F.M. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential roles of renin and angiotensinogen in the feto-maternal interface in the development of complications of pregnancy. Takimoto-Ohnishi, E., Saito, T., Ishida, J., Ohnishi, J., Sugiyama, F., Yagami, K., Fukamizu, A. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Lack of effect of protein deprivation-induced intrauterine growth retardation on behavior and corticosterone and growth hormone secretion in adult male rats: a long-term follow-up study. Nolan, L.A., Hart, E.J., Windle, R.J., Wood, S.A., Hu, X.W., Levi, A.J., Ingram, C.D., Levy, A. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Overlap of dyskeratosis congenita with the Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. Yaghmai, R., Kimyai-Asadi, A., Rostamiani, K., Heiss, N.S., Poustka, A., Eyaid, W., Bodurtha, J., Nousari, H.C., Hamosh, A., Metzenberg, A. J. Pediatr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The effects of high-dose toluene on embryonic development in the rat. Gospe, S.M., Saeed, D.B., Zhou, S.S., Zeman, F.J. Pediatr. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of thyroid receptor isoforms in the human fetal central nervous system and the effects of intrauterine growth restriction. Kilby, M.D., Gittoes, N., McCabe, C., Verhaeg, J., Franklyn, J.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of intra-uterine growth restriction on the control of breathing and lung development after birth. Harding, R., Tester, M.L., Moss, T.J., Davey, M.G., Louey, S., Joyce, B., Hooper, S.B., Maritz, G. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, and maternal homocysteine levels. Burke, G., Robinson, K., Refsum, H., Stuart, B., Drumm, J., Graham, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Directed vascular expression of the thromboxane A2 receptor results in intrauterine growth retardation. Rocca, B., Loeb, A.L., Strauss, J.F., Vezza, R., Habib, A., Li, H., FitzGerald, G.A. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Normal levels of anticoagulant heparan sulfate are not essential for normal hemostasis. HajMohammadi, S., Enjyoji, K., Princivalle, M., Christi, P., Lech, M., Beeler, D., Rayburn, H., Schwartz, J.J., Barzegar, S., de Agostini, A.I., Post, M.J., Rosenberg, R.D., Shworak, N.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Cellular localization of AT1 receptor mRNA and protein in normal placenta and its reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of vasorelaxants. Li, X., Shams, M., Zhu, J., Khalig, A., Wilkes, M., Whittle, M., Barnes, N., Ahmed, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Intrauterine growth retardation leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in the rat. Simmons, R.A., Templeton, L.J., Gertz, S.J. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Maturation of the lower oesophageal sphincter in the preterm baby. Newell, S.J., Sarkar, P.K., Durbin, G.M., Booth, I.W., McNeish, A.S. Gut (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency and low dietary folate lead to adverse reproductive outcomes and congenital heart defects in mice. Li, D., Pickell, L., Liu, Y., Wu, Q., Cohn, J.S., Rozen, R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. L-arginine transport by the microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast from human placenta in relation to nitric oxide production: effects of gestation, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Ayuk, P.T., Theophanous, D., D'Souza, S.W., Sibley, C.P., Glazier, J.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Altered cell kinetics in cultured placental villous explants in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Crocker, I.P., Tansinda, D.M., Baker, P.N. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Alterations of human placental epidermal growth factor receptor in intrauterine growth retardation. Fondacci, C., Alsat, E., Gabriel, R., Blot, P., Nessmann, C., Evain-Brion, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Possible narrowed assignment of the loci of monosomy 21-associated microcephaly and intrauterine growth retardation to a 1.2-Mb segment at 21q22.2. Matsumoto, N., Ohashi, H., Tsukahara, M., Kim, K.C., Soeda, E., Niikawa, N. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Endocrine pancreas development in growth-retarded human fetuses. Béringue, F., Blondeau, B., Castellotti, M.C., Bréant, B., Czernichow, P., Polak, M. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Protein kinase B alpha/Akt1 regulates placental development and fetal growth. Yang, Z.Z., Tschopp, O., Hemmings-Mieszczak, M., Feng, J., Brodbeck, D., Perentes, E., Hemmings, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 activate trophoblast Tie-2 to promote growth and migration during placental development. Dunk, C., Shams, M., Nijjar, S., Rhaman, M., Qiu, Y., Bussolati, B., Ahmed, A. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Intra-uterine growth restriction and the programming of left ventricular remodelling in female rats. Battista, M.C., Calvo, E., Chorvatova, A., Comte, B., Corbeil, J., Brochu, M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Arginine and mixed amino acids increase protein accretion in the growth-restricted and normal ovine fetus by different mechanisms. de Boo, H.A., van Zijl, P.L., Smith, D.E., Kulik, W., Lafeber, H.N., Harding, J.E. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Outcome in infants born to mothers with unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. Burton, B.K., Dillard, R.G. Pediatrics (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Steady state maternal-fetal leucine enrichments in normal and intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies. Marconi, A.M., Paolini, C.L., Stramare, L., Cetin, I., Fennessey, P.V., Pardi, G., Battaglia, F.C. Pediatr. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Compensatory responses in mice carrying a null mutation for Ins1 or Ins2. Leroux, L., Desbois, P., Lamotte, L., Duvillié, B., Cordonnier, N., Jackerott, M., Jami, J., Bucchini, D., Joshi, R.L. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. IGFs and binding proteins in short children with intrauterine growth retardation. Cutfield, W.S., Hofman, P.L., Vickers, M., Breier, B., Blum, W.F., Robinson, E.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Maternal serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 in early pregnancy ending in preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation. Wathén, K.A., Tuutti, E., Stenman, U.H., Alfthan, H., Halmesmäki, E., Finne, P., Ylikorkala, O., Vuorela, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Placental growth hormone (GH), GH-binding protein, and insulin-like growth factor axis in normal, growth-retarded, and diabetic pregnancies: correlations with fetal growth. McIntyre, H.D., Serek, R., Crane, D.I., Veveris-Lowe, T., Parry, A., Johnson, S., Leung, K.C., Ho, K.K., Bougoussa, M., Hennen, G., Igout, A., Chan, F.Y., Cowley, D., Cotterill, A., Barnard, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Differences in apoptotic susceptibility of cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts in normal pregnancy to those complicated with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Crocker, I.P., Cooper, S., Ong, S.C., Baker, P.N. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Insulin resistance early in adulthood in subjects born with intrauterine growth retardation. Jaquet, D., Gaboriau, A., Czernichow, P., Levy-Marchal, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
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