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Chemical Compound Review

Biguanide     2-carbamimidoylguanidine

Synonyms: DIGUANIDE, HBIG, CHEBI:3095, AG-K-07657, AC1L1LGL, ...
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Disease relevance of DIGUANIDE


High impact information on DIGUANIDE


Chemical compound and disease context of DIGUANIDE


Biological context of DIGUANIDE


Anatomical context of DIGUANIDE

  • In order to evaluate the in vivo effects of biguanides on the insulin receptor, we have studied insulin binding to circulating monocytes of six normal controls, eight obese nondiabetic subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients, both before and after 4 days of treatment with the biguanide metformin (850 mg twice daily orally) [20].
  • The latter effect was additive to the maximum effect of metformin, suggesting that the biguanide stimulates hexose uptake into muscle cells by an insulin-independent mechanism [21].
  • In contrast, the changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration evoked by m-chlorophenyl biguanide displayed substantially slower kinetics, similar to previous findings, but which varied among responding synaptosomes from one region to another [22].
  • Very high biguanide concentrations, applied infrequently, directly to the molars, effectively reduced caries and resulted in less staining [23].
  • The effect of the hypoglycemic biguanide drug Metformin was investigated after a 72 h pretreatment of human cultured fibroblasts [24].

Associations of DIGUANIDE with other chemical compounds


Gene context of DIGUANIDE


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DIGUANIDE

  • Interestingly, the microinjection of this biguanide, at a final concentration of 20 nmol/l, allowed a similar biochemical response [35].
  • Discontinuation of biguanide treatment, or administration of antibiotics, normalized or improved the increased deconjugation of bile acids and the Schilling test [36].
  • An expedient and facile one-step synthesis of a biguanide library by microwave irradiation coupled with simple product filtration. Inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase [37].
  • Titration of either single- or double-stranded 100-bp DNA, or mixed-molecular weight marker DNA, or tRNA with PHMB caused precipitation of a complex between nucleic acid and PHMB in which the nucleotide/biguanide ratio was always close to unity [38].
  • Pharmacologic treatment options include oral administration of the sulfonylureas, a biguanide, and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and subcutaneous administration of insulin [39].


  1. Chlorhexidine or polyhexamethylene biguanide for acanthamoeba keratitis. Seal, D.V., Hay, J., Kirkness, C.M. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Metformin reduces systemic methylglyoxal levels in type 2 diabetes. Beisswenger, P.J., Howell, S.K., Touchette, A.D., Lal, S., Szwergold, B.S. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Phenformin increases insulin binding to human cultured breast cancer cells. Cohen, D., Pezzino, V., Vigneri, R., Avola, R., D'Agata, R., Polosa, P. Diabetes (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Biguanide-associated lactic acidosis. Case report and review of the literature. Gan, S.C., Barr, J., Arieff, A.I., Pearl, R.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Biguanide treatment increases the number of insulin-receptor sites on human erythrocytes. Holle, A., Mangels, W., Dreyer, M., Kühnau, J., Rüdiger, H.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 synthesis in the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Metformin inhibits the stimulating effect of insulin. Anfosso, F., Chomiki, N., Alessi, M.C., Vague, P., Juhan-Vague, I. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Metformin prevents alcohol-induced liver injury in the mouse: Critical role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Bergheim, I., Guo, L., Davis, M.A., Lambert, J.C., Beier, J.I., Duveau, I., Luyendyk, J.P., Roth, R.A., Arteel, G.E. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Metformin-stimulated mannose transport in dermal fibroblasts. Shang, J., Lehrman, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Metformin but not glyburide prevents high glucose-induced abnormalities in relaxation and intracellular Ca2+ transients in adult rat ventricular myocytes. Ren, J., Dominguez, L.J., Sowers, J.R., Davidoff, A.J. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Outcome of acanthamoeba keratitis treated with polyhexamethyl biguanide and propamidine. Duguid, I.G., Dart, J.K., Morlet, N., Allan, B.D., Matheson, M., Ficker, L., Tuft, S. Ophthalmology (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Scedosporium prolificans osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent child treated with voriconazole and caspofungin, as well as locally applied polyhexamethylene biguanide. Steinbach, W.J., Schell, W.A., Miller, J.L., Perfect, J.R. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The response of Escherichia coli to exposure to the biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide. Allen, M.J., White, G.F., Morby, A.P. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. New developments in type 2 diabetes mellitus: combination therapy with a thiazolidinedione. Braunstein, S. Clinical therapeutics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide and 1% povidone iodine in experimental Aspergillus keratitis. Panda, A., Ahuja, R., Biswas, N.R., Satpathy, G., Khokhar, S. Cornea (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of metformin on lactate uptake and gluconeogenesis in the perfused rat liver. Radziuk, J., Zhang, Z., Wiernsperger, N., Pye, S. Diabetes (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Plasma biguanide levels are correlated with metabolic effects in diabetic patients. Marchetti, P., Benzi, L., Cecchetti, P., Giannarelli, R., Boni, C., Ciociaro, D., Ciccarone, A.M., Di Cianni, G., Zappella, A., Navalesi, R. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Killing acanthamoebae with polyaminopropyl biguanide: quantitation and kinetics. Burger, R.M., Franco, R.J., Drlica, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Phagocytosis affects biguanide sensitivity of Acanthamoeba spp. Noble, J.A., Ahearn, D.G., Avery, S.V., Crow, S.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Phenformin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits transepithelial Na+ transport across H441 lung cells. Woollhead, A.M., Scott, J.W., Hardie, D.G., Baines, D.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Metformin normalizes insulin binding to monocytes from obese nondiabetic subjects and obese type II diabetic patients. Trischitta, V., Gullo, D., Pezzino, V., Vigneri, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Cellular mechanism of metformin action involves glucose transporter translocation from an intracellular pool to the plasma membrane in L6 muscle cells. Hundal, H.S., Ramlal, T., Reyes, R., Leiter, L.A., Klip, A. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium changes induced by presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 serotonin receptors on isolated terminals from various regions of the rat brain. Nayak, S.V., Rondé, P., Spier, A.D., Lummis, S.C., Nichols, R.A. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Cariostatic activity of (1,6-bis-[2-ethylhexylbiguanido]-hexane) in conventional rats. Curtis, S.N., Dooley, C.L. J. Dent. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. The antidiabetic drug metformin decreases cholesterol metabolism in cultured human fibroblasts. Mazière, J.C., Mazière, C., Mora, L., Gardette, J., Salmon, S., Auclair, M., Polonovski, J. Atherosclerosis (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Endocrine and metabolic effects of metformin versus ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized study. Morin-Papunen, L.C., Vauhkonen, I., Koivunen, R.M., Ruokonen, A., Martikainen, H.K., Tapanainen, J.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Metformin and insulin receptors. Vigneri, R., Gullo, D., Pezzino, V. Diabetes Care (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Pharmacophoric features of biguanide derivatives: an electronic and structural analysis. Bharatam, P.V., Patel, D.S., Iqbal, P. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. A mechanism for the synergistic antimalarial action of atovaquone and proguanil. Srivastava, I.K., Vaidya, A.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of biocides on Acanthamoeba castellanii as measured by flow cytometry and plaque assay. Khunkitti, W., Avery, S.V., Lloyd, D., Furr, J.R., Russell, A.D. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Enhanced secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 by biguanide compounds. Yasuda, N., Inoue, T., Nagakura, T., Yamazaki, K., Kira, K., Saeki, T., Tanaka, I. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of oral antihyperglycemic agents on extracellular matrix synthesis by mesangial cells. Cortes, P., Riser, B.L., Asano, K., Rodríguez-Barbero, A., Narins, R.G., Yee, J. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. 5-HT2-mediated bronchial responses after syngeneic lung transplantation in the rat. Tavakoli, R., Frossard, N. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin-8 production in human adipose tissue. inhibitory effects of anti-diabetic compounds, the thiazolidinedione ciglitazone and the biguanide metformin. Bruun, J.M., Pedersen, S.B., Richelsen, B. Horm. Metab. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 (PC-1): a marker of insulin resistance in obesity, uremia and diabetes mellitus. Stefanović, V., Antić, S. Clin. Lab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Potentiating effect of metformin on insulin-induced glucose uptake and glycogen metabolism with Xenopus oocytes. Detaille, D., Wiernsperger, N., Devos, P. Diabetologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Alteration of bile acid metabolism and vitamin-B12-absorption in diabetics on biguanides. Caspary, W.F., Zavada, I., Reimold, W., Deuticke, U., Emrich, D., Willms, B. Diabetologia (1977) [Pubmed]
  37. An expedient and facile one-step synthesis of a biguanide library by microwave irradiation coupled with simple product filtration. Inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. Mayer, S., Daigle, D.M., Brown, E.D., Khatri, J., Organ, M.G. Journal of combinatorial chemistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Cooperativity in the binding of the cationic biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide to nucleic acids. Allen, M.J., Morby, A.P., White, G.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Pharmacologic treatment options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Tan, G.H., Nelson, R.L. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1996) [Pubmed]
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