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Chemical Compound Review

Cloramin     2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N- methyl...

Synonyms: Embichin, Mustargen, Mustine, Caryolysine, Chlormethine, ...
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Disease relevance of Chlormethine


Psychiatry related information on Chlormethine


High impact information on Chlormethine

  • The present studies with nitrogen mustard (HN2) fail to demonstrate any effect of non-lethal concentrations of methylated xanthines (MXs) on removal of DNA damage or post-replication repair in conditions producing synergistic lethal effects [9].
  • Some DNA-repair mutants appear to be more sensitive to chloramine, suggesting the involvement of DNA targets in bactericide [1].
  • Chloramine (which occurs widely as a by-product of sanitary chlorination of water supplies) is shown to be a weak mutagen, when reversion of trpC to trpC in Bacillus subtilis is used as an assay [1].
  • Mixed cultures recovered after treatment with DOX plus HN2 contained only P388/R cells [10].
  • Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ( [Leu15]-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chlormethine


Biological context of Chlormethine

  • The percent labeled mitosis curves and DNA contents, before and 4 days after HN2 was given, were similar [3].
  • Actinomycin D and mechlorethamine, however, had profound effects on inhibition of hCG-alpha production in excess of cell growth [17].
  • The resistant phenotype was unstable and was maintained by weekly treatment of the cells with HN2 [18].
  • The lengths of the breakage products of the DNA treated with HN2 were compared to the lengths of DNA scission products produced by chemical reactions used for DNA sequence determination [19].
  • Using haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains disrupted for genes central to the recombination, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and mutagenesis pathways, all these activities were found to be involved in the repair of nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine)- and cisplatin-induced DNA ICLs, but the particular pathway employed is cell cycle dependent [20].

Anatomical context of Chlormethine


Associations of Chlormethine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Chlormethine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chlormethine

  • The final preparation contained two species: (a) a approximately 13,000 Mr band on reducing or nonreducing SDS-PAGE and on autoradiograms after radioiodination with chloramine T, and (b) a 66,000 Mr species ranging from approximately 5% to approximately 50% of the protein detectable by silver strain [36].
  • The labeling index fell from 36.4 to 14.0% and the mitotic index from 0.88 to 0.67% after two treatments with HN2 [3].
  • Repair synthesis was shown to continue during the G2 arrest by using synchronized cells pulse labeled with [3H]thymidine after HN2 treatment and autoradiography [27].
  • These cells were arrested in G2 shortly after treatment with HN2 as shown by flow microfluorimetry and autoradiography [27].
  • We undertook a phase II study of combination chemotherapy with mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard) 6 mg/m2 intravenously day 1 and day 8, vincristine 2 mg intravenously day 1 and day 8, and procarbazine 100 mg/m2 orally days 1 through 14 (MOP) in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma [37].


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  11. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells. Soll, A.H., Amirian, D.A., Thomas, L.P., Reedy, T.J., Elashoff, J.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
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  13. Formation and removal of DNA cross-links induced by melphalan and nitrogen mustard in relation to drug-induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma cells. Hansson, J., Lewensohn, R., Ringborg, U., Nilsson, B. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Increased risk of secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia after extended-field radiation therapy combined with MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Andrieu, J.M., Ifrah, N., Payen, C., Fermanian, J., Coscas, Y., Flandrin, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Antitumor activity and bone marrow toxicity of aminoglucose mustard anticancer agents in mice. Cantrell, J.E., Green, D., Schein, P.S. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Induction of plasminogen activator by alkylating agents in a repair defective human glioblastoma cell strain. Brdar, B. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Influence of chemotherapeutic agents on chorionic gonadotropin-alpha subunit secretion in a human lung cancer cell line (ChaGo): discordance of cytotoxic and secretory effects. Broder, L.E., Weintraub, B.D., Rosen, S.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Elevated DNA topoisomerase II activity in nitrogen mustard-resistant human cells. Tan, K.B., Mattern, M.R., Boyce, R.A., Schein, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of an indicator sequence of human DNA to study DNA damage by methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine. Grunberg, S.M., Haseltine, W.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Repair of intermediate structures produced at DNA interstrand cross-links in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. McHugh, P.J., Sones, W.R., Hartley, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Detachment of cultured cells from the substratum induced by the neutrophil-derived oxidant NH2Cl: synergistic role of phosphotyrosine and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Nakamura, T.Y., Yamamoto, I., Nishitani, H., Matozaki, T., Suzuki, T., Wakabayashi, S., Shigekawa, M., Goshima, K. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Immediate and delayed neurotoxicity after mechlorethamine preparation for bone marrow transplantation. Sullivan, K.M., Storb, R., Shulman, H.M., Shaw, C.M., Spence, A., Beckham, C., Clift, R.A., Buckner, C.D., Stewart, P., Thomas, E.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Defining the roles of nucleotide excision repair and recombination in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links in mammalian cells. De Silva, I.U., McHugh, P.J., Clingen, P.H., Hartley, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. The chlorinating potential of the human monocyte. Lampert, M.B., Weiss, S.J. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Potentiation of nitrogen mustard cytotoxicity by disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamic acid, and diethylamine in mice. Valeriote, F., Grates, H.E. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Detection of activated lymphocytes in endocrine pancreas of BB/W rats by injection of 123I-interleukin-2: an early sign of type 1 diabetes. Signore, A., Parman, A., Pozzilli, P., Andreani, D., Beverley, P.C. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Mechanism by which caffeine potentiates lethality of nitrogen mustard. Lau, C.C., Pardee, A.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. A novel role for DNA photolyase: binding to DNA damaged by drugs is associated with enhanced cytotoxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fox, M.E., Feldman, B.J., Chu, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Metabolic effects of antisickling amounts of nitrogen and nor-nitrogen mustard on rabbit and human erythrocytes. Roth, E.F., Nagel, R.L., Neuman, G., Vanderhoff, G., Kaplan, B.H., Jaffé, E.R. Blood (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. The role of drug transport in resistance to nitrogen mustard and other alkylating agents in L518Y lymphoblsts. Goldenberg, G.J. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. The ability to engage enterocyte apoptosis does not predict long-term crypt survival in p53 and Msh2 deficient mice. Sansom, O.J., Clarke, A.R. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Coordinate alterations in the expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, p300, and Rad51 in response to genotoxic and other stresses in human prostate cancer cells. Yuan, R., Fan, S., Wang, J.A., Meng, Q., Ma, Y., Schreiber, D., Goldberg, I.D., Rosen, E.M. Prostate (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Influence of DNA repair defects (rad1, rad52) on nitrogen mustard mutagenesis in yeast. Mis, J.R., Kunz, B.A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. G2 delay induced by nitrogen mustard in human cells affects cyclin A/cdk2 and cyclin B1/cdc2-kinase complexes differently. O'Connor, P.M., Ferris, D.K., Pagano, M., Draetta, G., Pines, J., Hunter, T., Longo, D.L., Kohn, K.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Cells lacking CIP1/WAF1 genes exhibit preferential sensitivity to cisplatin and nitrogen mustard. Fan, S., Chang, J.K., Smith, M.L., Duba, D., Fornace, A.J., O'Connor, P.M. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Purification of macrophage deactivating factor. Srimal, S., Nathan, C. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Mechlorethamine, vincristine, and procarbazine chemotherapy for recurrent high-grade glioma in adults: a phase II study. Coyle, T., Baptista, J., Winfield, J., Clark, K., Poiesz, B., Kirshner, J., Scalzo, A., Newman-Palmer, N., King, R., Graziano, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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