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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Death


Psychiatry related information on Death


High impact information on Death

  • Studies were selected if they reported at least 1 of the following outcomes: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, study withdrawal due to adverse events, angina frequency, nitroglycerin use, or exercise duration [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diltiazem did not reduce the cumulative occurrence of cardiac death, non-fatal reinfarction, or refractory ischaemia during a 6-month follow-up, but did reduce all composite endpoints of non-fatal cardiac events, especially the need for myocardial revascularisation [8].
  • Survival free of major events (cardiac death, mitral surgery, repeat PMV, or functional impairment) was 69% at 7 years, ranging from 88% to 40% in different subgroups of patients [9].
  • Independent predictors of cardiac death were MCD (P = .007) and female sex (P = .018) [10].
  • The current study was performed to examine whether sex-specific differences exist in these outcomes in a large population of vascular surgery patients and to determine the value of clinical and dipyridamole thallium variables in predicting myocardial infarction and cardiac death [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Death

  • For the total follow-up, mortality remained significantly lower in the amiodarone group versus the control group regarding all deaths (p = 0.03) as well as cardiac death (p = 0.047) [12].
  • In the sicker CAST-II patients (ejection fraction < or = 40%), only diuretic use at baseline interacted significantly with moricizine use for both all-cause death/cardiac arrest and arrhythmic death/cardiac arrest (total mortality hazard ratios, 1.9 versus 0.7 for diuretic use versus no use, P = .01) [13].
  • There were no differences for a hierarchic end point of cardiac death, myocardial infarction or revascularization (14.8% aspirin and dipyridamole vs. 17.8% placebo) [14].
  • While a normal dobutamine echocardiogram predicts low risk of cardiac death (on the order of 1% per year), this risk increases with the extent of abnormal wall motion at rest and stress [15].
  • CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that adenosine MPS has comparable incremental value for prediction of cardiac death in women and men and that MPS is appropriately influencing subsequent invasive management decisions in both genders [5].

Biological context of Death

  • The interactions between diltiazem and three parameters of left ventricular function using cardiac death as the end point were investigated in 2,466 patients, aged 25-75 years, who were involved in the long-term diltiazem postinfarction trial [16].
  • There was a diltiazem-related reduction in cardiac death (Cox hazard ratio, 0.76-0.86) for each of the parameters reflecting good ventricular function, and a significant diltiazem-related increase in cardiac death (Cox hazard ratio, 1.52-1.85) for each of the parameters associated with impaired function [16].
  • VR dynamicity (determined from Holter's recordings at baseline) was compared before antiarrhythmic therapy in 118 patients who had cardiac death and 118 matched survivors according to age, gender, left ventricular ejection fraction, and subsequent administration or nonadministration of amiodarone [17].
  • Therefore the injection of small doses of isoproterenol (4 micrograms/min) may be proposed to evaluate the prognosis of patients with CHF; a weak increase in heart rate during this infusion is a sign of bad prognosis with a high risk of cardiac death as a result of CHF [18].
  • Analysis of the corticotrophic cell clumps showed that the suicide victims had higher POMC mRNA density per cell (p = 0.04) and larger corticotrophic cell size (p = 0.04) than the cardiac death victims [19].

Anatomical context of Death


Gene context of Death

  • In a stepwise Cox regression analysis, including these biochemical markers, age, sex, functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction, cTnT, and BNP were found to be significantly independent predictors of both cardiac death (p <0.05) and cardiac events (p <0.01) [24].
  • Additionally, nonspecific increases in CA125 and TPS levels might be related to nonmalignant circulatory disturbances and cardiac death [25].
  • In AMI patients with in-hospital complications (n=15; pump failure in ten, recurrent myocardial infarction in one, malignant ventricular arrhythmia in three and cardiac death in one), spontaneous and stimulated levels of TACE and TNF-alpha were higher than in patients without complications (P<0.01) [26].
  • RESULTS: The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the cTnT as predictor of both overall and cardiac death was significantly greater than the area under the cTnI curve (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01), the BNP curve (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) or the ANP curve (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.005) [27].
  • Pre-catheterization plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 along with clinical and hemodynamic variables and follow-up data of cardiac death were assessed [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Death


  1. C-reactive protein as a predictor of infarct expansion and cardiac rupture after a first Q-wave acute myocardial infarction. Anzai, T., Yoshikawa, T., Shiraki, H., Asakura, Y., Akaishi, M., Mitamura, H., Ogawa, S. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction. Hakki, A.H., Nestico, P.F., Heo, J., Unwala, A.A., Iskandrian, A.S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-term treatment with metoprolol after myocardial infarction: effect on 3 year mortality and morbidity. Olsson, G., Rehnqvist, N., Sjögren, A., Erhardt, L., Lundman, T. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Extent of jeopardized viable myocardium determined by myocardial perfusion imaging best predicts perioperative cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Brown, K.A., Rowen, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Adenosine myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in women compared with men. Impact of diabetes mellitus on incremental prognostic value and effect on patient management. Berman, D.S., Kang, X., Hayes, S.W., Friedman, J.D., Cohen, I., Abidov, A., Shaw, L.J., Amanullah, A.M., Germano, G., Hachamovitch, R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition Post Revascularization Study (APRES). Kjøller-Hansen, L., Steffensen, R., Grande, P. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Meta-analysis of trials comparing beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina. Heidenreich, P.A., McDonald, K.M., Hastie, T., Fadel, B., Hagan, V., Lee, B.K., Hlatky, M.A. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Diltiazem in acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Incomplete Infarction Trial of European Research Collaborators Evaluating Prognosis post-Thrombolysis (INTERCEPT). Boden, W.E., van Gilst, W.H., Scheldewaert, R.G., Starkey, I.R., Carlier, M.F., Julian, D.G., Whitehead, A., Bertrand, M.E., Col, J.J., Pedersen, O.L., Lie, K.I., Santoni, J.P., Fox, K.M. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty with the Inoue balloon. Hernandez, R., Bañuelos, C., Alfonso, F., Goicolea, J., Fernández-Ortiz, A., Escaned, J., Azcona, L., Almeria, C., Macaya, C. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Incidence and clinical significance of multiple consecutive, appropriate, high-energy discharges in patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillators. Villacastín, J., Almendral, J., Arenal, A., Albertos, J., Ormaetxe, J., Peinado, R., Bueno, H., Merino, J.L., Pastor, A., Medina, O., Tercedor, L., Jiménez, F., Delcán, J.L. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Sex differences in perioperative and long-term cardiac event-free survival in vascular surgery patients. An analysis of clinical and scintigraphic variables. Hendel, R.C., Chen, M.H., L'Italien, G.J., Newell, J.B., Paul, S.D., Eagle, K.A., Leppo, J.A. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Long-term benefit of 1-year amiodarone treatment for persistent complex ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Pfisterer, M.E., Kiowski, W., Brunner, H., Burckhardt, D., Burkart, F. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of baseline characteristics with the hazard of encainide, flecainide, and moricizine therapy in patients with myocardial infarction. A possible explanation for increased mortality in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST). Anderson, J.L., Platia, E.V., Hallstrom, A., Henthorn, R.W., Buckingham, T.A., Carlson, M.D., Carson, P.E. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Frequent reocclusion of patent infarct-related arteries between 4 weeks and 1 year: effects of antiplatelet therapy. White, H.D., French, J.K., Hamer, A.W., Brown, M.A., Williams, B.F., Ormiston, J.A., Cross, D.B. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Prediction of mortality using dobutamine echocardiography. Marwick, T.H., Case, C., Sawada, S., Rimmerman, C., Brenneman, P., Kovacs, R., Short, L., Lauer, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. The interaction between diltiazem and left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. Multicenter Diltiazem Post-Infarction Research Group. Moss, A.J., Oakes, D., Benhorin, J., Carleen, E. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Usefulness of ventricular repolarization dynamicity in predicting arrhythmic deaths in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (from the European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial). Milliez, P., Leenhardt, A., Maisonblanche, P., Vicaut, E., Badilini, F., Siliste, C., Benchetrit, C., Coumel, P. Am. J. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Heart rate variations during isoproterenol infusion in congestive heart failure: relationships to cardiac mortality. Brembilla-Perrot, B. Am. Heart J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization and quantification of pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in pituitaries of suicide victims. López, J.F., Palkovits, M., Arató, M., Mansour, A., Akil, H., Watson, S.J. Neuroendocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Long-term prognostic significance of dobutamine echocardiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: results of a 5-year follow-up study. Steinberg, E.H., Madmon, L., Patel, C.P., Sedlis, S.P., Kronzon, I., Cohen, J.L. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Postmortem changes in uric acid and ascorbic acid in human cerebral cortex tissues excised after cardiac death. Iriyama, K., Iwamoto, T., Yoshiura, M., Aoki, T. Biochem. Med. Metab. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. The extent of perfusion-F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography mismatch determines mortality in medically treated patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Desideri, A., Cortigiani, L., Christen, A.I., Coscarelli, S., Gregori, D., Zanco, P., Komorovsky, R., Bax, J.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypereosinophilic syndrome and myocardial infarction in a 15-year-old. Rauch, A.E., Amyot, K.M., Dunn, H.G., Ng, B., Wilner, G. Pediatric pathology & laboratory medicine : journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology, affiliated with the International Paediatric Pathology Association. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Risk stratification using a combination of cardiac troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide in patients hospitalized for worsening chronic heart failure. Ishii, J., Nomura, M., Nakamura, Y., Naruse, H., Mori, Y., Ishikawa, T., Ando, T., Kurokawa, H., Kondo, T., Nagamura, Y., Ezaki, K., Hishida, H. Am. J. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Tumor marker determination after orthotopic heart transplantation. Nägele, H., Bahlo, M., Klapdor, R., Rödiger, W. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Activated tumour necrosis factor-alpha shedding process is associated with in-hospital complication in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Shimoda, Y., Satoh, M., Nakamura, M., Akatsu, T., Hiramori, K. Clin. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Risk stratification using serum concentrations of cardiac troponin T in patients with end-stage renal disease on chronic maintenance dialysis. Ishii, J., Nomura, M., Okuma, T., Minagawa, T., Naruse, H., Mori, Y., Ishikawa, T., Kurokawa, H., Hirano, T., Kondo, T., Nagamura, Y., Ezaki, K., Hishida, H. Clin. Chim. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. The value of plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in predicting the severity and prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure. Pan, J.P., Liu, T.Y., Chiang, S.C., Lin, Y.K., Chou, C.Y., Chan, W.L., Lai, S.T. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Stress echo results predict mortality: a large-scale multicenter prospective international study. Sicari, R., Pasanisi, E., Venneri, L., Landi, P., Cortigiani, L., Picano, E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Intracoronary stenting compared with conventional therapy for abrupt vessel closure complicating coronary angioplasty: a matched case-control study. Lincoff, A.M., Topol, E.J., Chapekis, A.T., George, B.S., Candela, R.J., Muller, D.W., Zimmerman, C.A., Ellis, S.G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Simultaneous echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography associated with dobutamine stress to predict long-term cardiac mortality in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Bigi, R., Bax, J.J., van Domburg, R.T., Elhendy, A., Cortigiani, L., Schinkel, A.F., Fiorentini, C., Poldermans, D. J. Hypertens. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a long-term predictor of cardiovascular death in renal transplant recipients. Haubitz, M., Votsch, K., Woywodt, A., Nashan, B., Groh, A., Haller, H., Brunkhorst, R. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Clopidogrel for prevention of major cardiac events after coronary stent implantation: 30-day and 6-month results in patients with smaller stents. Calver, A.L., Blows, L.J., Harmer, S., Dawkins, K.D., Gray, H.H., Morgan, J.H., Simpson, I.A. Am. Heart J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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