The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Norflurane     1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

Synonyms: Norflurano, Norfluranum, Genetron 134a, Khladon 134a, Arcton 134a, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Norflurane


High impact information on Norflurane


Biological context of Norflurane


Anatomical context of Norflurane


Associations of Norflurane with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Norflurane

  • In this study, we determined that the human ortholog of P-450 2E1 plays a role of similar importance in the metabolism of HFC-134a [14].
  • Dominant role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in human hepatic microsomal oxidation of the CFC-substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [14].
  • The chlorofluorocarbon substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) is subject to metabolism by cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes from rat, rabbit, and human [14].
  • Blood samples for HFA-134a in the MDI A group were collected on day 28 to measure systemic absorption [15].
  • 3. In a peri- and post-natal study, rats were exposed to HFA-134a from days 17 to 20 of pregnancy and days 1 to 21 post partum to atmospheres of 1800, 9900 or 64,400 p.p.m. 4 [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Norflurane


  1. Acute neurobehavioral effects in rats from exposure to HFC 134a or CFC 12. Ritchie, G.D., Kimmel, E.C., Bowen, L.E., Reboulet, J.E., Rossi, J. Neurotoxicology (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects on lung function, symptoms, and bronchial hyperreactivity of low-dose inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate given with HFA-134a or CFC propellant. Woodcock, A., Williams, A., Batty, L., Masterson, C., Rossetti, A., Cantini, L. Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Review of therapeutically equivalent alternatives to short acting beta(2) adrenoceptor agonists delivered via chlorofluorocarbon-containing inhalers. Hughes, D.A., Woodcock, A., Walley, T. Thorax (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Interaction of fluoroethane chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes with microsomal cytochrome P450. Stimulation of P450 activity and chlorodifluoroethene metabolism. Wang, Y., Olson, M.J., Baker, M.T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative study of cryogen spray cooling with R-134a and R-404a: implications for laser treatment of dark human skin. Dai, T., Yaseen, M.A., Diagaradjane, P., Chang, D.W., Anvari, B. Journal of biomedical optics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization study of the positive and negative ion chemistry of the hydrofluorocarbons 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and of perfluoro-n-hexane (FC-72) in air plasma at atmospheric pressure. Marotta, E., Paradisi, C., Scorrano, G. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Placebo-controlled, comparative study of the efficacy and safety of triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol with the non-CFC propellant HFA-134a in patients with asthma. Azmacort HFA Clinical Study Group. Jacobson, K., Chervinsky, P., Noonan, M., Kane, R.E., Banerji, D., Uryniak, T. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. A study comparing the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of triamcinolone acetonide HFA-134a metered-dose inhaler and budesonide dry-powder inhaler following inhalation administration. Argenti, D., Shah, B., Heald, D. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. R-134a emissions from vehicles. Siegl, W.O., Wallington, T.J., Guenther, M.T., Henney, T., Pawlak, D., Duffy, M. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cumulative dose response study comparing HFA-134a albuterol sulfate and conventional CFC albuterol in patients with asthma. Ramsdell, J.W., Colice, G.L., Ekholm, B.P., Klinger, N.M. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxidative defluorination of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane by rat liver microsomes. Olson, M.J., Reidy, C.A., Johnson, J.T., Pederson, T.C. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Oxidation of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane in rat liver microsomes is catalyzed primarily by cytochrome P-450IIE1. Olson, M.J., Kim, S.G., Reidy, C.A., Johnson, J.T., Novak, R.F. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Defluorination of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) by rat hepatocytes. Olson, M.J., Reidy, C.A., Johnson, J.T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Dominant role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in human hepatic microsomal oxidation of the CFC-substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. Surbrook, S.E., Olson, M.J. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Twenty-eight-day double-blind safety study of an HFA-134a inhalation aerosol system in healthy subjects. Harrison, L.I., Donnell, D., Simmons, J.L., Ekholm, B.P., Cooper, K.M., Wyld, P.J. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane): effects of inhalation exposure upon reproductive performance, development and maturation of rats. Alexander, D.J., Libretto, S.E., Adams, M.J., Hughes, E.W., Bannerman, M. Human & experimental toxicology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Hollow porous particles in metered dose inhalers. Dellamary, L.A., Tarara, T.E., Smith, D.J., Woelk, C.H., Adractas, A., Costello, M.L., Gill, H., Weers, J.G. Pharm. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. CH-stretching overtone spectroscopy of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. Saar, B.G., Steeves, A.H., Thoman, J.W., Howard, D.L., Schofield, D.P., Kjaergaard, H.G. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacokinetic comparison of beclomethasone dipropionate extrafine aerosol from two inhaler devices in children with asthma. Harrison, L.I., Kurup, S., Chen, L.Z., Ekholm, B.P., Wighton, T.G., Shapiro, G.G. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Determination of the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA-134a) in human and animal blood using gas chromatography with headspace analysis. Cooper, K.M., Chang, S.F., Harrison, L.I. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities