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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Ear, External

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Disease relevance of Ear, External


High impact information on Ear, External

  • Expression of the Hox-7 gene is also seen in the external ear, the forming eye, the nasal pits and forming Jacobson's organs [6].
  • In contrast, EGF delayed opening of the external ear canal by approximately 48 h [7].
  • Male RTRs were at particular risk of invasive SCC at sun-exposed sites such as the scalp and the external ear [8].
  • A subset of stem cells referred to here as ear mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) has been isolated from the external ears of regenerative (Athymic Nude-nu) and nonregenerative strains of mice [9].
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy of the external ear pinna revealed increased CGRP-immunoreactive sensory innervation in estrogen-treated rats, and this was attributable specifically to increased innervation of arterioles [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ear, External


Biological context of Ear, External

  • In summary, these data provide new information on the critical time of EGF response in the rat, the existence of an asymmetric pattern of organ growth retardation following perinatal EGF exposure, and the ability of EGF to retard morphogenesis of the external ear [7].

Anatomical context of Ear, External


Associations of Ear, External with chemical compounds

  • Topical application of HgCl2 in a mixture of acetone-olive oil on the external ear of SJL mice induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in IL-1 activity [19].
  • Three concentrations of tetradecane and liquid paraffin were applied daily for 4 weeks to the external ear skin of rabbits, and the average diameter of the follicular lesions was measured under the Leitz MZ surface microscope [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial infections of the external ear canal are most often caused by P. aeruginosa [21].
  • INTERVENTION: For each subject, one ear was randomly assigned to receive topical ciprofloxacin, placed in the middle and external ear after surgery, while the contralateral ear served as a control [22].
  • Anesthesia of the ear canal is produced by injection of lidocaine hydrochloride into the skin of the lateral external ear canal [23].

Gene context of Ear, External

  • Where ductal arrangements were present, CK10 was also detected, in analogy with the CK10 registration in ductal portions of mucous glands in the external ear canal skin [24].
  • Here we show that gelatinase B (matrix metalloproteinase-9) is over-expressed in cholesteatoma compared to external ear canal skin (EACS) [25].
  • The absence of CK8 in mucous glands of the perimatrix, however, strongly differentiates these structures from the mucous gland acini and ducti in the external ear canal, where CK8 is systematically expressed [24].
  • Mutations in the BMP-5 gene at the mouse short-ear locus alter size, shape, and number of many different skeletal elements, and greatly reduce the size of the external ear [26].
  • With miniature microphones inserted into the external ear canals of a model and the sound source 90 degrees to left of midline, low-pass, and broadband noise bursts were picked up and recorded on magnetic tape [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ear, External


  1. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome: notable intrafamilial phenotypic variability in a large family with Q28X TWIST mutation. Dollfus, H., Biswas, P., Kumaramanickavel, G., Stoetzel, C., Quillet, R., Biswas, J., Lajeunie, E., Renier, D., Perrin-Schmitt, F. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Manifestations in four males with and an obligate carrier of the Lenz microphthalmia syndrome. Forrester, S., Kovach, M.J., Reynolds, N.M., Urban, R., Kimonis, V. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression patterns of p27Kip1 and Ki-67 in cholesteatoma epithelium. Chae, S.W., Song, J.J., Suh, H.K., Jung, H.H., Lim, H.H., Hwang, S.J. Laryngoscope (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Branchio-oto-renal dysplasia associated with tetralogy of Fallot. Daggilas, A., Antoniades, K., Palasis, S., Aidonis, A. Head & neck. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Severe hypertrichosis of the external ear canal during minoxidil therapy. Toriumi, D.M., Konior, R.J., Berktold, R.E. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Hox-7 expression during murine craniofacial development. MacKenzie, A., Ferguson, M.W., Sharpe, P.T. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of the neonatal rat with epidermal growth factor: differences in time and organ response. Hoath, S.B. Pediatr. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. A population-based study of skin cancer incidence and prevalence in renal transplant recipients. Moloney, F.J., Comber, H., O'Lorcain, P., O'Kelly, P., Conlon, P.J., Murphy, G.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Regeneration in the ears of immunodeficient mice: identification and lineage analysis of mesenchymal stem cells. Gawronska-Kozak, B. Tissue engineering. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Estrogen selectively increases sensory nociceptor innervation of arterioles in the female rat. Blacklock, A.D., Cauveren, J.A., Smith, P.G. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Alteration of epidermal differentiation in middle ear cholesteatoma. Stammberger, M., Bujía, J., Kastenbauer, E. The American journal of otology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Stenosis of the external ear canal: prevention using hydroxylated polyvinyl acetal wicks. Larson, P.O. The Journal of dermatologic surgery and oncology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Toluene-induced ototoxicity by subcutaneous administration. Pryor, G.T., Howd, R.A. Neurobehavioral toxicology and teratology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Enhancement of comedogenic substances by ultraviolet radiation. Mills, O.H., Porte, M., Kligman, A.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. The argon laser in otology. DiBartolomeo, J.R., Ellis, M. Laryngoscope (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Teratogenicity of all-trans retinoic acid during early embryonic development in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Hendrickx, A.G., Hummler, H. Teratology (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of involucrin in human middle ear cholesteatoma. Chao, W.Y., Huang, C.C. The American journal of otology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. On the ultrastructure of the developing elastic cartilage in the rat external ear. Kostović-Knezević, L., Bradamante, Z., Svajger, A. Anat. Embryol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Mercury induces in vivo and in vitro secretion of interleukin-1 in mice. Zdolsek, J.M., Söder, O., Hultman, P. Immunopharmacology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. The correlation between surface microscopy and dermal histology in tetradecane-induced comedones in rabbit ear skin. Motoyoshi, K. Br. J. Dermatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Microbiology of acute otitis externa. Roland, P.S., Stroman, D.W. Laryngoscope (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of topical ciprofloxacin on postoperative otorrhea after tympanostomy tube insertion. Zipfel, T.E., Wood, W.E., Street, D.F., Wulffman, J., Tipirneni, A., Frey, C., Gibson, W.S. The American journal of otology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Lidocaine in the middle ear. Wilson, D.F., Hodgson, R.S. Laryngoscope (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. A comparative immunohistochemical study of cytokeratin and vimentin expression in middle ear mucosa and cholesteatoma, and in epidermis. Broekaert, D., Cornille, A., Eto, H., Leigh, I., Ramaekers, F., Van Muijen, G., Coucke, P., De Bersaques, J., Kluyskens, P., Gillis, E. Virchows Archiv. A, Pathological anatomy and histopathology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of matrix metalloproteinases in keratinocytes by cholesteatoma debris and granulation tissue extracts. Schmidt, M., Grünsfelder, P., Hoppe, F. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Clinical identification of a human equivalent to the short ear (se) murine phenotype. Lacombe, D., Toutain, A., Gorlin, R.J., Oley, C.A., Battin, J. Ann. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Apparent distance of sounds recorded in echoic and anechoic chambers. Butler, R.A., Levy, E.T., Neff, W.D. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Surgical repair of bone defects of the ear canal wall with flexible hydroxylapatite sheets: a pilot study. Zanetti, D., Nassif, N., Antonelli, A.R. Otol. Neurotol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. RNA kinetics at the wound margins. Oehmichen, M., Lagodka, T. Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Inefficacy of enrofloxacin in the elimination of Pasteurella multocida in rabbits. Mähler, M., Stünkel, S., Ziegowski, C., Kunstýr, I. Lab. Anim. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Cytokeratin expression patterns in the human tympanic membrane and external ear canal. Lepercque, S., Broekaert, D., Van Cauwenberge, P. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
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