The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Pearsall     trichloroalumane

Synonyms: Hemoban, AlCl3, TK Flock, HSDB 607, CCRIS 6871, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of trichloroalumane

  • The interrelationship of the effects of antacids and of rising intragastric pH on serum gastrin levels was examined by comparing the effect of three antacids (Mg(OH)2Al(OH)3, and CaCO3), and their nonbuffering chloride compounds (MgCl2, AlCl3, and CaCl2), on serum gastrin and intragastric pH in duodenal ulcer patients [1].
  • The link between phospholipase C activation and these early events of the mitogenic response is demonstrated by the similarity of all dose-response curves for NaF and AlCl3 and by the common sensitivity of the four events to pertussis toxin [2].
  • The amount of Al accumulated after the chronic, intraperitoneal administration of aluminium gluconate (Al-G) or AlCl3, both at a dose of 1 mg/ml/100 g of body weight, increased in the frontal and parietal cortices, the hippocampus, and the striatum [3].
  • Poliovirus-seeded tap water, conditioned with MgCl2 and passed through virus-adsorbing filters, gave better poliovirus recovery than water identically treated but conditioned with AlCl3 [4].
  • Axillary skin biopsies from fifteen patients with axillary hyperhidrosis who had received long-term treatment with aqueous aluminium chloride solution were examined histologically [5].

Psychiatry related information on trichloroalumane

  • Basal and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were significantly lower in the PTSD group whereas aluminum chloride plus sodium fluoride (AlCl3/NaF)- and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-stimulated responses were normal [6].
  • On the basis of these results, we have tried to examine whether the incorporated Al affects memory in mice with regard to an indicator of spatial memory deficits depending on the chemical forms of Al, namely, as an ion (AlCl3) and in the form of a complex (ALM) [7].
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary modification and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) manure amendments on reducing P in swine manure and runoff [8].

High impact information on trichloroalumane

  • A purification procedure for C60 from the fullerene extract has been developed using the differential complexation of C60 and C70 with AlCl3 (or its conjugate acid) in CS2 solution [9].
  • Injections of AlCl3 alone as well as injections of normal adult and fetal CNS tau, several different synthetic peptides, neurofilament proteins, ACT, HSPGs, or ApoE with and without AlCl3 failed to induce co-deposits of A beta or alter the immunoreactivity of tau in rodent neurons [10].
  • We also examined the effects of AlCl3 on PHF tau and normal adult human CNS tau in vitro [10].
  • We investigated in vivo interactions of PHF tau and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) with other plaque and tangle components by injecting PHF tau with and without AlCl3 into the rodent brain [10].
  • The addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) markedly enhanced cAMP formation induced by carbacyclin, a stable prostacyclin analogue, in cultured mast cells (IC2 cells), but did not enhance basal or NaF plus AlCl3-induced cAMP formation [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of trichloroalumane

  • Hence the effects of aluminium administration (at a dose of 4.2mg/kg body weight daily as aluminium chloride, hexahydrate, intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks) on glutamate and gamma-amino butyrate (GABA), an inhibitory amino acid, and related enzyme activities in different regions of the brain were studied in albino rats [12].
  • Axillary hyperhidrosis. Local treatment with aluminium-chloride hexahydrate 25% in absolute ethanol with and without supplementary treatment with triethanolamine [13].
  • Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on certain hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits [14].
  • Apart from induction of perikaryal neurofibrillary inclusions, AlCl3 at 1 mM induced no obvious additional signs of toxicity when added to culture medium in the presence of the normal medium CaCl2 content of 1.8 mM, nor when extracellular calcium was decreased by the addition to the medium of 0.9 mM EDTA [15].
  • The effects of two doses of NaCl and NaHCO3 as well as of Al(OH3) and AlCl3 respectively, on serum gastrin concentrations and intragastric pH were compared in duodenal ulcer patients [16].

Biological context of trichloroalumane

  • The effect of NaF/AlCl3 on the cotransporter was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor K252a indicating the involvement of a protein phosphorylation event [17].
  • In these acini no effect of NaF/AlCl3 on intracellular calcium or cell volume was observed, indicating that stimulation of the cotransporter was not secondary to either of these phenomena [17].
  • H/R did not alter AlCl3/NaF, KCl, BayK-8644 or l-indolactam-induced vasoconstriction [18].
  • Guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) and NaF (in the presence of AlCl3) caused concentration-dependent stimulations of [3H]PI hydrolysis, supporting the conclusion that G proteins mediating [3H]PI hydrolysis can be activated in this preparation [19].
  • The activity can be partially inhibited by ZnCl2 (with an IC50 of 4.5 mM) and by AlCl3 (with an IC50 of 5.1 mM) [20].

Anatomical context of trichloroalumane

  • To determine if aluminum salts interact directly and specifically with PHF tau in situ, we pretreated sections of AD hippocampus with 10 mM AlCl3 and then probed these sections by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to PHF tau as well as to a number of other plaque and tangle components [10].
  • G-proteins were subsequently extracted from liver membranes as heterotrimers and purified in the presence of AlCl3, MgCl2, and NaF to allow reversible activation [21].
  • Transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of GPBP incubated in 10(-1) mol l AlCl3 for 24 hours demonstrated discrete Al3+ localization in the sarcolemma and cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of devitalized pericardial connective tissue cells at intracellular sites coincident with phosphorus loci [22].
  • Al3+ aortas were preincubated in either 10(-1) mol/l, 10(-2) mol/l, or 10(-3) mol/l AlCl3 [23].
  • The G-protein activator, NaF plus AlCl3, mimicked both effects of the Ca2(+)-mobilizing hormones on [Ca2+]i. The mechanism for Ca2+ removal from the cytosol by Ca2(+)-mobilizing hormones did not involve cyclic nucleotides nor did it require protein kinase C activation or cyclo- and lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid [24].

Associations of trichloroalumane with other chemical compounds

  • Exposure of intact cells to 25 mM NaF + 10 microM AlCl3 enhanced both basal and EGF-stimulated PGE2 production [25].
  • The effects of NaF and AlCl3 on transducin were investigated in a reconstituted system consisting of the purified subunits of transducin (T alpha, T beta, gamma) and rhodopsin [26].
  • Gpp(NH)p-, NaF/AlCl3-, and isoproterenol-stimulated binding were used as indices of G-protein/adenylyl cyclase coupling [27].
  • Aluminum salts irreversibly inactivated calpain but only at high aluminum concentrations (IC50 = 1.2 and 2.1 mM for aluminum lactate and AlCl3, respectively), although longer exposure to the ion reduced by twofold the levels required for protease inhibition [28].
  • Third, NaF + AlCl3-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not altered by EGF [29].

Gene context of trichloroalumane

  • PHF tau co-injected with AlCl3 formed aggregates that persisted much longer in the rat brain, and induced longer-lived co-deposits of A beta, ubiquitin, ACT, and ApoE than PHF tau alone [10].
  • The migration of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was not affected by AlCl3 [30].
  • AlCl3 also had no effect on transferrin-receptor expression, but at high concentration it caused an increase in iron uptake by an unknown, possibly non-specific, mechanism [31].
  • By contrast, intact, dephosphorylated NF-H subunits were unable to prevent AlCl3-induced alteration of native NF-M electrophoretic migration [32].
  • Amorphous aggregates were observed in AlCl3 treated APP when examined by EM [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of trichloroalumane

  • To study this problem, a rat subdermal model of nonvalved aortic wall allograft calcification was characterized, and experimental studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that aortic allograft preincubation in either amino-propanehydroxydiphosphonate (APDP) or AlCl3 would inhibit calcification in a rat subdermal model [23].
  • After in vivo perfusion of the upper intestine of the rat with a range of concentrations of aluminium chloride, entry of the metal into the portal system was only detected when the perfusate exceeded 400 mumol/l, suggesting a mucosal block [34].
  • The model is produced by direct intramedullary microinjection of AlCl3, which results in a characteristic neurological syndrome [35].
  • At the same time period following implantation the matrix calcium content was 794 +/- 539 and 3038 +/- 692 mmol/kg in the 0.1 and 0.01 M AlCl3 pretreated groups versus 4252 +/- 579 mmol/kg in the control group (P less than 0.01) [36].
  • They then received intraventricular injections of 1% AlCl3, HCL, or normal saline [37].


  1. Effect of rising intragastric pH induced by several antacids on serum gastrin concentrations in duodenal ulcer patients and in a control group. Feurle, G.E. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Coupling between phosphoinositide breakdown and early mitogenic events in fibroblasts. Studies with fluoroaluminate, vanadate, and pertussis toxin. Paris, S., Chambard, J.C., Pouysségur, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Cholinotoxic effects of aluminum in rat brain. Gulya, K., Rakonczay, Z., Kása, P. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Processing and transport of environmental virus samples. Dahling, D.R., Wright, B.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Structural changes in axillary eccrine glands following long-term treatment with aluminium chloride hexahydrate solution. Hölzle, E., Braun-Falco, O. Br. J. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Platelet adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C activity in posttraumatic stress disorder. Lerer, B., Bleich, A., Bennett, E.R., Ebstein, R.P., Balkin, J. Biol. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Memory deficit in mice administered aluminum-maltolate complex. Kaneko, N., Takada, J., Yasui, H., Sakurai, H. Biometals (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Reducing phosphorus runoff from swine manure with dietary phytase and aluminum chloride. Smith, D.R., Moore, P.A., Maxwell, C.V., Haggard, B.E., Daniel, T.C. J. Environ. Qual. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Convenient separation of high-purity C60 from crude fullerene extract by selective complexation with AlCl3. Bucsi, I., Aniszfeld, R., Shamma, T., Prakash, G.K., Olah, G.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Aluminum modifies the properties of Alzheimer's disease PHF tau proteins in vivo and in vitro. Shin, R.W., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement by protein kinase C of prostacyclin receptor-mediated activation of adenylate cyclase through a calmodulin/myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) system in IC2 mast cells. Sawai, T., Negishi, M., Nishigaki, N., Ohno, T., Ichikawa, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of aluminium exposure on brain glutamate and GABA systems: an experimental study in rats. Nayak, P., Chatterjee, A.K. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Axillary hyperhidrosis. Local treatment with aluminium-chloride hexahydrate 25% in absolute ethanol with and without supplementary treatment with triethanolamine. Glent-Madsen, L., Dahl, J.C. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid. Yousef, M.I. Toxicology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Calcium modulates aluminum neurotoxicity and interaction with neurofilaments. Shea, T.B. Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. The action of antacids on serum gastrin concentrations in man. Feurle, G.E. Klin. Wochenschr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter in rat parotid acinar cells by aluminum fluoride and phosphatase inhibitors. Paulais, M., Turner, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation on aortic vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Gao, H., Korthuis, R.J., Benoit, J.N. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Chronic lithium treatment impairs phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in membranes from rat brain regions. Song, L., Jope, R.S. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Transglutaminase activity in rat brain: characterization, distribution, and changes with age. Gilad, G.M., Varon, L.E. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Activation of cytosolic phosphoinositide phospholipase C by G-protein beta gamma subunits. Blank, J.L., Brattain, K.A., Exton, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of mineralization of glutaraldehyde-pretreated bovine pericardium by AlCl3. Mechanisms and comparisons with FeCl3, LaCl3, and Ga(NO3)3 in rat subdermal model studies. Webb, C.L., Schoen, F.J., Flowers, W.E., Alfrey, A.C., Horton, C., Levy, R.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Calcification of allograft aortic wall in a rat subdermal model. Pathophysiology and inhibition by Al3+ and aminodiphosphonate preincubations. Webb, C.L., Nguyen, N.M., Schoen, F.J., Levy, R.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Ca2(+)-mobilizing hormones stimulate Ca2+ efflux from hepatocytes. Duddy, S.K., Kass, G.E., Orrenius, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. The epidermal growth factor receptor is coupled to a phospholipase A2-specific pertussis toxin-inhibitable guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein in cultured rat inner medullary collecting tubule cells. Teitelbaum, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanism of inhibition of transducin GTPase activity by fluoride and aluminum. Kanaho, Y., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. G-protein function is reduced in hypertension. Feldman, R.D., Chorazyczewski, J. Hypertension (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Aluminum inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis and induces human neurofilament proteins to form protease-resistant high molecular weight complexes. Nixon, R.A., Clarke, J.F., Logvinenko, K.B., Tan, M.K., Hoult, M., Grynspan, F. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Epidermal growth factor stimulates rat cardiac adenylate cyclase through a GTP-binding regulatory protein. Nair, B.G., Rashed, H.M., Patel, T.B. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Aluminum alters the electrophoretic properties of neurofilament proteins: role of phosphorylation state. Shea, T.B., Beermann, M.L., Nixon, R.A. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of aluminium on iron uptake and transferrin-receptor expression by human erythroleukaemia K562 cells. McGregor, S.J., Naves, M.L., Oria, R., Vass, J.K., Brock, J.H. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Multiple interactions of aluminum with neurofilament subunits: regulation by phosphate-dependent interactions between C-terminal extensions of the high and middle molecular weight subunits. Shea, T.B., Beermann, M.L. J. Neurosci. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Aggregation of amyloid precursor proteins by aluminum in vitro. Chong, Y.H., Suh, Y.H. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Absorbed aluminium is found with two cytosolic protein fractions, other than ferritin, in the rat duodenum. Cochran, M., Goddard, G., Ramm, G., Ludwigson, N., Marshall, J., Halliday, J. Gut (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Cholinergic function in lumbar aluminum myelopathy. Kosik, K.S., Bradley, W.G., Good, P.F., Rasool, C.G., Selkoe, D.J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  36. Effect of aluminum on bone matrix inductive properties. Zhu, J.M., Huffer, W., Alfrey, A.C. Kidney Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Disrupted retention of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response in the aluminum-intoxicated rabbit using electrical stimulation of the brain as a conditioned stimulus. Solomon, P.R., Koota, D., Pendlebury, W.W. Neurobiol. Aging (1990) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities