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Chemical Compound Review

bithionol     2,4-dichloro-6-(3,5-dichloro- 2-hydroxy...

Synonyms: Bidiphen, Bitionol, Nobacter, Prevenol, Actamer, ...
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Disease relevance of bithionol


Psychiatry related information on bithionol


High impact information on bithionol

  • Triclabendazole and bithionol are the most effective drugs against F. hepatica [7].
  • G. lamblia, which was incubated in the complete medium containing dichlorophene, showed a characteristic swelling of the ventral side which led to disruption of the parasite, whereas bithionol caused a thin crack in the cytoplasm of T. vaginalis incubated in Asami medium [2].
  • Fractionation after cyanogen bromide treatment showed that bithionol was bound to both major fragments of HSA, with a preference for the N-terminal region of the protein [8].
  • The mutagenic effects of bithionol sulfoxide and its two major metabolites, bithionol and bithionol sulfone, on 4 Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102) were investigated [9].
  • Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents--XII. Spin trapping study of the free radicals generated during the photolysis of photoallergens bithionol and fentichlor [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of bithionol


Biological context of bithionol


Anatomical context of bithionol

  • Positive results were obtained with well known photosensitizers, as, for instance, the halogenated salicylanilides, as well as with so-called weak photoallergens (e.g. bithionol, sulphanilamide) by stimulating the animals' immune system with Freund's complete adjuvant [15].
  • Before bithionol treatment, lymphocytic infiltration in all hepatic lesions were predominantly of OKT3+ (pan T) lymphocytes [16].
  • Human fascioliasis: T cell subsets in liver before and after bithionol treatment [16].
  • Previous work has shown that the antiparasitic drug bithionol has an EC(50) of 0.7 microg/ml (2 microM) with primary human keratinocytes, but that these cells do not respond to photoactivated bithionol [13].
  • Ova of the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani were found in the sputum, and the patient responded to bithionol therapy [17].

Associations of bithionol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of bithionol

  • This may indicate that suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes may have a role in the immune regulation of the disease and the mode of action of bithionol is by the accentuation of this immunoregulatory effect [16].
  • A high level of the anti-Paragonimus westermani antibody was detected in the sera of the patient, but this level decreased substantially 3 months after chemotherapy with bithionol [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of bithionol


  1. Successful treatment of acute fascioliasis with bithionol. Bacq, Y., Besnier, J.M., Duong, T.H., Pavie, G., Metman, E.H., Choutet, P. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro inhibition of Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis growth by bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene. Takeuchi, T., Kobayashi, S., Tanabe, M., Fujiwara, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Successful praziquantel treatment of paragonimiasis following bithionol failure. A case report. Johnson, R.J., Dunning, S.B., Minshew, B.H., Jong, E.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Relapse of Paragonimus westermani lung infection after bithionol therapy. Coleman, D.L., Barry, M. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Recurrent eosinophilic panniculitis associated with Fasciola hepatica infection. Perez, C., Vives, R., Montes, M., Ostiz, S. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Experimental chemotherapy of paragonimiasis. A review. Yokogawa, M. Arzneimittel-Forschung. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Fascioliasis in developed countries: a review of classic and aberrant forms of the disease. Arjona, R., Riancho, J.A., Aguado, J.M., Salesa, R., González-Macías, J. Medicine (Baltimore) (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The photochemical binding of bithionol to soluble proteins and peptides. Delahanty, J.N., Evans, J.C., Rowlands, C.C., Pendlington, R.U., Barratt, M.D. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutagenicity of bithionol sulfoxide and its metabolites in the salmonella/mammalian microsome test. Mourot, D., Mourot, A. Mutat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Spectroscopic studies of cutaneous photosensitizing agents--XII. Spin trapping study of the free radicals generated during the photolysis of photoallergens bithionol and fentichlor. Li, A.S., Chignell, C.F. Photochem. Photobiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Compartive studies on the effect of bithionol, praziqantel and triclabendazole in rabbit's fascioliasis. 1. Parasitological studies. el-Sayad, M.H. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Glutathione and related enzymes in fascioliasis before and after treatment with bithionol. Abdel-Rahman, S.Z., el-Sharkawy, A.M., Abou-Bacha, L.M., Salem, A. The Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Hydrogen peroxide induced stress in human keratinocytes and its effect on bithionol toxicity. Reid, L., Clothier, R.H., Khammo, N. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Hepatic damage in experimental and clinical paragonimiasis. Hu, X., Feng, R., Zheng, Z., Liang, J., Wang, H., Lu, J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Predictive animal testing for photocontact allergenicity. Maurer, T., Weirich, E.G., Hess, R. Br. J. Dermatol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Human fascioliasis: T cell subsets in liver before and after bithionol treatment. Abdel Rahman, Z.A., Fadali, G.A., Abou Basha, L.M. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Paragonimus westermani: a cause of cavitary lung disease in an Indochinese refugee. Collins, M.S., Phelan, A., Kim, T.C., Pearson, R.D. South. Med. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Studies on the in vitro effects of bithionol and menichlopholan on flukes of Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus takahashii and Paragonimus miyazakii. Hamajima, F., Fujino, T., Yamagami, K., Eriguchi, N. Int. J. Parasitol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of bithionol sulphoxide on Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena infections in dogs. Gemmell, M.A., Oudemans, G., Sakamoto, T. Res. Vet. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Kinetic, inhibition and structural studies on 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase from Plasmodium falciparum, a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. Wickramasinghe, S.R., Inglis, K.A., Urch, J.E., Müller, S., van Aalten, D.M., Fairlamb, A.H. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Paragonimiasis westermani presenting as an asymptomatic nodular lesion in the lung: report of a case. Yoshino, I., Nawa, Y., Yano, T., Ichinose, Y. Surgery today. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of ELISA for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis westermani. Imai, J. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana Pfeiffer (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): second intermediate host of Echinostoma malayanum in the Philippines. Monzon, R.B., Kitikoon, V. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Superiority of hemofiltration to hemodialysis for treatment of chronic renal failure: comparative studies between hemofiltration and hemodialysis on dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Kishimoto, T., Yamagami, S., Tanaka, H., Ohyama, T., Yamamoto, T., Yamakawa, M., Nishino, M., Yoshimoto, S., Maekawa, M. Artificial organs. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Human fascioliasis: ultrastructural study on the liver before and after bithionol treatment. Abou Basha, L.M., Salem, A.I., Fadali, G.A. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (1990) [Pubmed]
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