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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Giardiasis


Psychiatry related information on Giardiasis


High impact information on Giardiasis


Chemical compound and disease context of Giardiasis


Biological context of Giardiasis


Anatomical context of Giardiasis


Gene context of Giardiasis

  • In conclusion, increased TNF-alpha and sIL-2R may be involved in pathogenesis of non-allergic giardiasis and probably Th1 type immune response seems to be predominant and this response may be protective rather than causative of the disease [22].
  • The role of adhesion molecules; the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as mediators in development of skin allergy caused by giardiasis and the controlling role of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 over these adhesion molecules were studied [23].
  • Chronic giardiasis in B-cell-deficient mice expressing the xid gene [24].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Due to its low specificity antigliadin antibodies are not useful for the screening of CD in patients with giardiasis [25].
  • Sera from patients without a history of giardiasis and with no detectable antibody by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assay (IFA titers less than 1:2) killed from 8 to 76% of trophozoites (n = 23 sera) [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Giardiasis


  1. Malabsorption of water miscible vitamin A in children with giardiasis and ascariasis. Mahalanabis, D., Simpson, T.W., Chakraborty, M.L., Ganguli, C., Bhattacharjee, A.K., Mukherjee, K.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency associated with modular lymphoid hyperplasia. Jacobson, K.W., deShazo, R.D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Metronidazole in anaerobic infections: a review of its activity, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic use. Brogden, R.N., Heel, R.C., Speight, T.M., Avery, G.S. Drugs (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. In vitro effect of tinidazole and furazolidone on metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis. Narcisi, E.M., Secor, W.E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Single dose therapy of giardiasis with tinidazole and metronidazole. Gazder, A.J., Banerjee, M. Drugs (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Furazolidone-induced mood disorder during the treatment of refractory giardiasis in a patient with AIDS. Elliott, A.M., Klaus, B.D., North, D.S., Martin, H.P. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Giardiasis. A crimp in the life-style of campers, travelers, and others. Holtan, N.R. Postgraduate medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Chronic giardiasis: studies on drug sensitivity, toxin production, and host immune response. Smith, P.D., Gillin, F.D., Spira, W.M., Nash, T.E. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Treatment of giardiasis: comparative evaluation of ornidazole and tinidazole as a single oral dose. Jokipii, L., Jokipii, A.M. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Granulomatous hepatitis and cholangitis associated with giardiasis. Roberts-Thomson, I.C., Anders, R.F., Bhathal, P.S. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Giardiasis: association with homosexuality. Schmerin, M.J., Jones, T.C., Klein, H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Single-dose treatment of giardiasis with ornidazole in children. Werkman, H.P., Meuwissen, J.H. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Milk intolerance due to lactose and giardiasis. Tolboom, J.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Endemic giardiasis in New Hampshire: a case-control study of environmental risks. Dennis, D.T., Smith, R.P., Welch, J.J., Chute, C.G., Anderson, B., Herndon, J.L., von Reyn, C.F. J. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. In vitro inhibition of Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis growth by bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene. Takeuchi, T., Kobayashi, S., Tanabe, M., Fujiwara, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. The effects of saturated fatty acids on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites in vitro. Rayan, P., Stenzel, D., McDonnell, P.A. Parasitol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town, South Africa: epidemiology and control. Adams, V.J., Markus, M.B., Adams, J.F., Jordaan, E., Curtis, B., Dhansay, M.A., Obihara, C.C., Fincham, J.E. African health sciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Flagyl (metronidazole hydrochloride). Claussen, D.W. Gastroenterology nursing : the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Chromosome studies of bone marrow cells from metronidazole-treated patients. Salamanca-Gomez, F., Castaneda, G., Farfan, J., Del C Santillan, M., Munoz, O., Armendares, S. Ann. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence that intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes are activated cytotoxic T cells in celiac disease but not in giardiasis. Oberhuber, G., Vogelsang, H., Stolte, M., Muthenthaler, S., Kummer, A.J., Radaszkiewicz, T. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Jejunal brush border microvillous alterations in Giardia muris-infected mice: role of T lymphocytes and interleukin-6. Scott, K.G., Logan, M.R., Klammer, G.M., Teoh, D.A., Buret, A.G. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Serum cytokine changes in Turkish children infected with Giardia lamblia with and without allergy: Effect of metronidazole treatment. Bayraktar, M.R., Mehmet, N., Durmaz, R. Acta Trop. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Human giardiasis as an etiology of skin allergy: the role of adhesion molecules and interleukin-6. Mahmoud, M.S., Salem, A.A., Rifaat, M.M. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Chronic giardiasis in B-cell-deficient mice expressing the xid gene. Snider, D.P., Skea, D., Underdown, B.J. Infect. Immun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Celiac disease diagnosis in patients with giardiasis: high value of antitransglutaminase antibodies. Sorell, L., Garrote, J.A., Galvan, J.A., Velazco, C., Edrosa, C.R., Arranz, E. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Susceptibility of Giardia lamblia trophozoites to the lethal effect of human serum. Hill, D.R., Burge, J.J., Pearson, R.D. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Asymptomatic giardiasis and growth in young children; a longitudinal study in Salvador, Brazil. Prado, M.S., Cairncross, S., Strina, A., Barreto, M.L., Oliveira-Assis, A.M., Rego, S. Parasitology (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Giardiasis treatment in Turkish children with a single dose of ornidazole. Ozbilgin, A., Ertan, P., Yereli, K., Tamay, A.T., Kurt, O., Degerli, K., Balcioglu, I.C., Ok, U.Z., Onag, A. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Serum vitamin A and beta-carotene levels in children with giardiasis before and after treatment. Yakinci, C., Küçükbay, F.Z., Durmaz, Y., Küçükbay, H., Rafig, M. J. Trop. Pediatr. (1998) [Pubmed]
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