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Chemical Compound Review

Durazanil     10-bromo-2-pyridin-2-yl-3,6...

Synonyms: Calmepam, Lexomil, Lexotan, Lexotanil, bromazepam, ...
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Disease relevance of Lexotan


Psychiatry related information on Lexotan

  • To compare the pharmacokinetic, psychomotor performance, and subjective effects of alprazolam SR (1.5 mg), bromazepam (3 mg taken three times daily), and lorazepam (1 mg taken three times daily), 13 male volunteers (aged 20-45 years) randomly received on four separate occasions one of these medications or placebo [6].
  • The Compendium of Physical Activity was used to calculate the energy cost of each reported activity [7].
  • Two hundred and forty-five patients with generalized anxiety disorder (DSM-III 1980) were treated for 2 weeks with two daily doses of bromazepam, 3 mg or chlorprothixene, 15 mg or placebo [8].
  • Effects of 6 and 12 mg bromazepam on reaction time, stimulus sensitivity and response bias in a 1-hour visual attention task, on smooth pursuit eye movements, and on performance in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST) were investigated in 12 healthy male volunteers [9].
  • The effect of 3 dosages of bromazepam administered as single oral doses (1.5, 3 and 6 mg) on anxious inhibition phenomena was studied in a population of 16 young women (18-30 years) with anxiety-traits, selected on the criteria of Cattell's anxiety scale supported by two personality inventory (Eysenck's, MMPI) [10].

High impact information on Lexotan


Chemical compound and disease context of Lexotan


Biological context of Lexotan

  • Underivatized measurement of bromazepam by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection with application to single-dose pharmacokinetics [18].
  • Determination of bromazepam and its urinary metabolites, with a previous hydrolysis reaction, by voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques [19].
  • This new automated method has been successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of 2 tablet formulations of 6 mg bromazepam: Lexotan(R) from Produtos Roche Químicos e Farmacêuticos SA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (reference) and test formulation from Laboratórios Biosintética Ltda, São Paulo, Brazil [20].
  • It is concluded that high doses of diazepam and bromazepam influence the heart rate of conscious dogs in a biphasic way [21].
  • The comparison of different experimental conditions for establishing a dissolution profile in vitro along with our bioavailability data further allowed us to propose rationally based experimental conditions for a dissolution test of bromazepam tablets, actually lacking a pharmacopeial monograph [20].

Anatomical context of Lexotan

  • The production of these spindles may be explained by the inhibition or centriole separation . In contrast, midazolam and bromazepam failed to produce observable changes in spindle structure [22].
  • However, bromazepam increased 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid levels in hypothalamus, mid-brain and pons-medulla [14].
  • The time course of the pharmacodynamic effects of bromazepam on the central nervous system was assessed using a subjective rating of sedation, continuous number addition test and electroencephalography up to 21.5 h after bromazepam administration [23].
  • After addition of bromazepam as internal standard, the analytes were isolated from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by liquid-liquid extraction [24].
  • Bromazepam failed to change 3H-norepinephrine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine uptake in synaptosomes suggesting that the increased levels of monoamines are not related to laterations in uptake mechanisms, but probably to a diminished release [14].

Associations of Lexotan with other chemical compounds

  • The metabolism of bromazepam in the rat--identification of mercapturic acid and its conversion in vitro to methylthio-bromazepam [25].
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral profiles of alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam and lorazepam in mice after single and repeated (every half-life for seven half-lives) administrations using a stimulation-sedation test (actimeter), a myorelaxation test (rotarod), and an anxiolysis test ("four plates") [26].
  • A rapid, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of bromazepam and flunitrazepam in plasma and urine using gas chromatography has been developed [27].
  • Experimental comparison of low doses of 1.5 mg fluspirilene and bromazepam in out-patients with psychovegetative disturbances [28].
  • The acute and subchronic effects of orally administered buspirone (acute: 15 mg; subchronic: 5 mg t.i.d.; Day 7:5 mg) and bromazepam (acute: 6 mg; subchronic: 2 mg t.i.d.; Day 7: 2 mg) on psychomotor and cognitive parameters were explored vs placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design with three periods in 12 healthy male volunteers [29].

Gene context of Lexotan


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lexotan


  1. Psychophysiological disorders in anxious patients: hypertension and hypotension. Fontaine, R., Boisvert, D. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Safety of calcium dobesilate in chronic venous disease, diabetic retinopathy and haemorrhoids. Allain, H., Ramelet, A.A., Polard, E., Bentué-Ferrer, D. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures following withdrawal of therapeutic dose of bromazepam. Fukuda, M., Nakajima, N., Tomita, M. Pharmacopsychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of chronic administration of bromazepam on its blood level profile and on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the rat. Fukazawa, H., Iwase, H., Ichishita, H., Takizawa, T., Shimizu, H. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Cross hepatotoxicity between tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines. Remy, A.J., Larrey, D., Pageaux, G.P., Ribstein, J., Ramos, J., Michel, H. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A comparative pharmacokinetic and dynamic evaluation of alprazolam sustained-release, bromazepam, and lorazepam. Busto, U.E., Kaplan, H.L., Wright, C.E., Gomez-Mancilla, B., Zawertailo, L., Greenblatt, D.J., Sellers, E.M. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Energy expenditure determined by self-reported physical activity is related to body fatness. Buchowski, M.S., Townsend, K.M., Chen, K.Y., Acra, S.A., Sun, M. Obes. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Bromazepam in generalized anxiety. Randomized, multi-practice comparisons with both chlorprothixene and placebo. Kragh-Sørensen, P., Holm, P., Fynboe, C., Schaumburg, E., Andersen, B., Bech, P., Pichard, J. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Acute effects of bromazepam on signal detection performance, digit symbol substitution test and smooth pursuit eye movements. Jansen, A.A., Verbaten, M.N., Slangen, J.L. Neuropsychobiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of bromazepam versus placebo on inhibition and waiting capacity in young women with traits of anxiety. Schuck, S., Allain, H., Gandon, J.M., Patat, A., Millet, V., Le Coz, F. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Bromazepam pharmacokinetics: influence of age, gender, oral contraceptives, cimetidine, and propranolol. Ochs, H.R., Greenblatt, D.J., Friedman, H., Burstein, E.S., Locniskar, A., Harmatz, J.S., Shader, R.I. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Blood levels and electroencephalographic effects of diazepam and bromazepam. Fink, M., Weinfeld, R.E., Schwartz, M.A., Conney, A.H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of bromazepam on single-trial event-related potentials in a visual vigilance task. van Leeuwen, T.H., Verbaten, M.N., Koelega, H.S., Kenemans, J.L., Slangen, J.L. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of a new benzodiazepine bromazepam on locomotor performance and brain monoamine metabolism. Rastogi, R.B., Lapierre, Y.D., Singhal, R.L. J. Neural Transm. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. A double-blind comparison of the anxiolytic activity of two benzodiazepines, metaclazepam and bromazepam, in anxiety neurosis. Bilone, F., Roncari, R. Current medical research and opinion. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. LC/MS determination of bromazepam, clopenthixol, and reserpine in serum of a non-fatal case of intoxication. Tas, A.C., van der Greef, J., ten Noever de Brauw, M.C., Plomp, T.A., Maes, R.A., Hohn, M., Rapp, U. Journal of analytical toxicology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Ranitidine plus bromazepam in the treatment of duodenal ulcer: effect on gastric acid secretion. García-Oyola, E., Curioso, W.I. J. Int. Med. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Underivatized measurement of bromazepam by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection with application to single-dose pharmacokinetics. Friedman, H., Greenblatt, D.J., Burstein, E.S., Ochs, H.R. J. Chromatogr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Determination of bromazepam and its urinary metabolites, with a previous hydrolysis reaction, by voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques. Lopez Valdeón, J., Sevilla Escribano, M.T., Hernandez Hernandez, L. The Analyst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS-MS) for quantification of bromazepam in human plasma: an automated method for bioequivalence studies. Gonçalves, J.C., Monteiro, T.M., Neves, C.S., Gram, K.R., Volpato, N.M., Silva, V.A., Caminha, R., Gonçalves, M.d.o. .R., Santos, F.M., Silveira, G.E., Noël, F. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of cardiac chronotropic responses to diazepam and bromazepam in conscious trained dogs. Gerold, M., Cavero, I., Riggenbach, H., Wall, M., Haeusler, G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. The effects of benzodiazepines upon the fidelity of mitotic cell division in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Lafi, A., Parry, E.M., Parry, J.M. Mutat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bromazepam in healthy volunteers. Oda, M., Kotegawa, T., Tsutsumi, K., Ohtani, Y., Kuwatani, K., Nakano, S. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of oxcarbazepine and its main metabolites in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and its application to pharmacokinetic study. Kimiskidis, V., Spanakis, M., Niopas, I., Kazis, D., Gabrieli, C., Kanaze, F.I., Divanoglou, D. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. The metabolism of bromazepam in the rat--identification of mercapturic acid and its conversion in vitro to methylthio-bromazepam. Tateishi, M., Suzuki, S., Shimizu, H. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of behavioral effects after single and repeated administrations of four benzodiazepines in three mice behavioral models. Bourin, M., Hascoet, M., Mansouri, B., Colombel, M.C., Bradwejn, J. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Gas chromatographic determination of bromo and fluoro derivatives of benzodiazepine in human body fluids. Kaniewska, T., Wejman, W. J. Chromatogr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Experimental comparison of low doses of 1.5 mg fluspirilene and bromazepam in out-patients with psychovegetative disturbances. Hassel, P. Pharmacopsychiatry (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Placebo-controlled study on acute and subchronic effects of buspirone vs bromazepam utilizing psychomotor and cognitive assessments in healthy volunteers. Schaffler, K., Klausnitzer, W. Pharmacopsychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Quantitation using GC-TOF-MS: example of bromazepam. Aebi, B., Sturny-Jungo, R., Bernhard, W., Blanke, R., Hirsch, R. Forensic Sci. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Bromazepam-induced dystonia. Pérez Trullen, J.M., Modrego Pardo, P.J., Vázquez André, M., López Lozano, J.J. Biomed. Pharmacother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of bromazepam on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in normal subjects. D'Armiento, M., Bisignani, G., Reda, G. Horm. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  33. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of bromazepam in human plasma. Boukhabza, A., Lugnier, A.A., Kintz, P., Tracqui, A., Mangin, P., Chaumont, A.J. The Analyst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Determination of bromazepam by gas-liquid chromatography and its application for pharmacokinetic studies in man. Klotz, U. J. Chromatogr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  35. Combination of psychotherapy and drugs in the treatment of neurosis. A controlled comparison of bromazepam and thioridazine. Dencker, S.J., Fasth, B.G. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1986) [Pubmed]
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