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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Overdose


Psychiatry related information on Overdose


High impact information on Overdose

  • Fluoxetine does not have the anticholinergic, hypotensive, and sedative effects of tricyclic antidepressant drugs and has no particular cardiovascular effects; overdoses do not cause serious toxic effects [10].
  • Concentrations of PCP that produced near-maximum contractile responses on cerebral arteries were similar to those in the blood and brain of human subjects who had died from PCP overdoses [11].
  • RESULTS: A threshold temperature of 31.1 degrees C (88 degrees F) was identified, above which the mean daily number of fatal cocaine overdoses increased steadily [12].
  • Morphine was detected in the blood of five persons (31%) and cocaine in the blood of three persons (19%) dying of 3-methylfentanyl overdoses; these were demographically similar to 99 other fatal overdose cases investigated by the county coroner from 1986 through 1988 [13].
  • We treated two patients with phenobarbital overdoses with the nasogastric administration of multiple doses of activated charcoal [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Overdose


Biological context of Overdose


Anatomical context of Overdose


Gene context of Overdose

  • Results showed a decrease in catalase activity of the PFC and ST after SE and death induced by cocaine and bupropion overdoses [28].
  • Therapeutic doses of the COX-2 inhibitors and overdoses of acetaminophen have been associated with the development of occasional cases of acute renal failure [29].
  • The increasing use of MAO-A inhibitors and SSRIs in the treatment of depression suggests that careful clinical observation is required when combination overdoses are suspected [30].
  • Coma blisters have been reported after drug overdoses, but clinically similar blisters (not tested by biopsy) have been seen in other cases of coma [31].
  • Twelve percent of alprazolam overdoses had a GCS < 9 compared with 10% for other benzodiazepines [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Overdose


  1. Acetaminophen toxicity in an urban county hospital. Schiødt, F.V., Rochling, F.A., Casey, D.L., Lee, W.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Octreotide reverses hyperinsulinemia and prevents hypoglycemia induced by sulfonylurea overdoses. Boyle, P.J., Justice, K., Krentz, A.J., Nagy, R.J., Schade, D.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Delayed sequelae after acute overdoses or poisonings: cranial neuropathy related to ethylene glycol ingestion. Lewis, L.D., Smith, B.W., Mamourian, A.C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanism of action of calcium antagonists in heart and vascular smooth muscle. Fleckenstein, A., Fleckenstein-Grün, G. Eur. Heart J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in a severely poisoned young child. Lieh-Lai, M.W., Sarnaik, A.P., Newton, J.F., Miceli, J.N., Fleischmann, L.E., Hook, J.B., Kauffman, R.E. J. Pediatr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Phenylpropanolamine potentiates caffeine neurotoxicity in rats. Walker, J.S. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Cocaine use patterns and overdose. Pottieger, A.E., Tressell, P.A., Inciardi, J.A., Rosales, T.A. Journal of psychoactive drugs. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Parasuicide: a Singapore perspective. Wai, B.H., Heok, K.E. Ethnicity & health. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Drug-induced liver disease. Novak, D., Lewis, J.H. Current opinion in gastroenterology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Fluoxetine. Gram, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and mescaline: cerebral artery spasms and hallucinogenic activity. Altura, B.T., Altura, B.M. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Ambient temperature and mortality from unintentional cocaine overdose. Marzuk, P.M., Tardiff, K., Leon, A.C., Hirsch, C.S., Portera, L., Iqbal, M.I., Nock, M.K., Hartwell, N. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. An outbreak of designer drug--related deaths in Pennsylvania. Hibbs, J., Perper, J., Winek, C.L. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of phenobarbital overdose with activated charcoal. Goldberg, M.J., Berlinger, W.G. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Letter: Overdoses of chloramphenicol. Thompson, W.L., Anderson, S.E., Lipsky, J.J., Lietman, P.S. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Five fatal cases of serotonin syndrome after moclobemide-citalopram or moclobemide-clomipramine overdoses. Neuvonen, P.J., Pohjola-Sintonen, S., Tacke, U., Vuori, E. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Deaths after overdoses of orphenadrine. Millar, W.M. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Fatal temazepam overdoses. Forrest, A.R., Marsh, I., Bradshaw, C., Braich, S.K. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Acute doxorubicin overdoses. Curran, C.F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Pharmacokinetics of naproxen overdoses. Runkel, R., Chaplin, M.D., Sevelius, H., Ortega, E., Segre, E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Lithium absorption prevented by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in volunteers. Tomaszewski, C., Musso, C., Pearson, J.R., Kulig, K., Marx, J.A. Annals of emergency medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Alteration in dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons from the prefrontal cortex of rats with renovascular hypertension. Vega, E., Gómez-Villalobos, M.d.e. .J., Flores, G. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Non-linear pharmacokinetics of high-dose intravenous verapamil. Toffoli, G., Robieux, I., Fantin, D., Gigante, M., Frustaci, S., Nicolosi, G.L., De Cicco, M., Boiocchi, M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of dinoprost on transport of water and imipramine through rat small intestinal membranes. Arimori, K., Deshimaru, M., Nakano, M. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. A retinoic-acid critical period in the early postnatal mouse brain. Luo, T., Wagner, E., Crandall, J.E., Dräger, U.C. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. A one-year evaluation of calcium channel blocker overdoses: toxicity and treatment. Ramoska, E.A., Spiller, H.A., Winter, M., Borys, D. Annals of emergency medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Histamine release from rat mast cells induced by the metabolic activation of drugs of abuse into free radicals. Di Bello, M.G., Masini, E., Ioannides, C., Fomusi Ndisang, J., Raspanti, S., Bani Sacchi, T., Mannaioni, P.F. Inflamm. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Cocaine alters catalase activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. Macêdo, D.S., de Vasconcelos, S.M., dos Santos, R.S., Aguiar, L.M., Lima, V.T., Viana, G.S., de Sousa, F.C. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparative analgesia, cardiovascular and renal effects of celecoxib, rofecoxib and acetaminophen (paracetamol). Graham, G.G., Graham, R.I., Day, R.O. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Antidepressant toxicity and the need for identification and concentration monitoring in overdose. Power, B.M., Hackett, L.P., Dusci, L.J., Ilett, K.F. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Postoperative (pressure) alopecia. Wiles, J.C., Hansen, R.C. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Alprazolam is relatively more toxic than other benzodiazepines in overdose. Isbister, G.K., O'Regan, L., Sibbritt, D., Whyte, I.M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Resin hemoperfusion for acute drug intoxication. Rosenbaum, J.L., Kramer, M.S., Raja, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Performance characteristics of three serum iron and total iron-binding capacity methods in acute iron overdose. Roberts, W.L., Smith, P.T., Martin, W.J., Rainey, P.M. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in a lithium overdose. Roberge, R.J., Martin, T.G., Schneider, S.M. Annals of emergency medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate serum levels and clinical syndrome after severe overdose. Sporer, K.A., Chin, R.L., Dyer, J.E., Lamb, R. Annals of emergency medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
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