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MeSH Review

Anxiety Disorders

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Disease relevance of Anxiety Disorders


Psychiatry related information on Anxiety Disorders


High impact information on Anxiety Disorders


Chemical compound and disease context of Anxiety Disorders


Biological context of Anxiety Disorders


Anatomical context of Anxiety Disorders


Gene context of Anxiety Disorders

  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) may mediate human anxiety and animal data suggest that cholecystokinin antagonists could provide an important advance in the treatment of anxiety disorders [29].
  • RATIONALE: Hypersecretion of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been implicated in both severe anxiety disorders and major depression [30].
  • The zinc metalloenzyme glyoxalase I (GLO1) is thought to play a role in anxiety disorders because a reduced brain expression of GLO1 has been associated with increased anxiety-behaviours in mice [31].
  • Our data support the hypothesis that the hyperactivity of the noradrenergic system in response to stress is associated with anxiety disorders in adolescents and might influence the responses of GH and Te [32].
  • Polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), in intron 7 of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene and in the MAOA gene were previously reported to be associated with mood and anxiety disorders, impulsivity and aggression [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anxiety Disorders


  1. Buspirone for anxiety disorders in patients with severe lung disease. Craven, J., Sutherland, A. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Reliability of DSM-III diagnoses for major depression and generalized anxiety disorder using the structured clinical interview for DSM-III. Riskind, J.H., Beck, A.T., Berchick, R.J., Brown, G., Steer, R.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. GABA, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and neurological disease. Wong, C.G., Bottiglieri, T., Snead, O.C. Ann. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Graves'disease after the onset of panic disorder. Matsubayashi, S., Tamaí, H., Matsumoto, Y., Tamagawa, K., Mukuta, T., Morita, T., Kubo, C. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Headaches and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Egger, H.L., Angold, A., Costello, E.J. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. BDNF and 5-HT: a dynamic duo in age-related neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders. Mattson, M.P., Maudsley, S., Martin, B. Trends Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of clonidine on anxiety disorders. Hoehn-Saric, R., Merchant, A.F., Keyser, M.L., Smith, V.K. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Nicotine dependence, major depression, and anxiety in young adults. Breslau, N., Kilbey, M., Andreski, P. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. A controlled family history study of prepubertal major depressive disorder. Puig-Antich, J., Goetz, D., Davies, M., Kaplan, T., Davies, S., Ostrow, L., Asnis, L., Twomey, J., Iyengar, S., Ryan, N.D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Coplan, J.D., Andrews, M.W., Rosenblum, L.A., Owens, M.J., Friedman, S., Gorman, J.M., Nemeroff, C.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Isaacs, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular and neuronal substrate for the selective attenuation of anxiety. Löw, K., Crestani, F., Keist, R., Benke, D., Brünig, I., Benson, J.A., Fritschy, J.M., Rülicke, T., Bluethmann, H., Möhler, H., Rudolph, U. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists as potential antidepressants. Stout, S.C., Owens, M.J., Nemeroff, C.B. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Heim, C., Newport, D.J., Heit, S., Graham, Y.P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., Miller, A.H., Nemeroff, C.B. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficacy of venlafaxine extended-release capsules in nondepressed outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder: A 6-month randomized controlled trial. Gelenberg, A.J., Lydiard, R.B., Rudolph, R.L., Aguiar, L., Haskins, J.T., Salinas, E. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficacy of paroxetine for relapse prevention in social anxiety disorder: a 24-week study. Stein, D.J., Versiani, M., Hair, T., Kumar, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Antidepressants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. A placebo-controlled comparison of imipramine, trazodone, and diazepam. Rickels, K., Downing, R., Schweizer, E., Hassman, H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Pregabalin for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a 4-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin and alprazolam. Rickels, K., Pollack, M.H., Feltner, D.E., Lydiard, R.B., Zimbroff, D.L., Bielski, R.J., Tobias, K., Brock, J.D., Zornberg, G.L., Pande, A.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Early life stress and inherited variation in monkey hippocampal volumes. Lyons, D.M., Yang, C., Sawyer-Glover, A.M., Moseley, M.E., Schatzberg, A.F. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Heart rate and plasma norepinephrine responsivity to orthostatic challenge in anxiety disorders. Comparison of patients with panic disorder and social phobia and normal control subjects. Stein, M.B., Tancer, M.E., Uhde, T.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Salivary cortisol concentrations before and after carbon-dioxide inhalations in children. Coplan, J.D., Moreau, D., Chaput, F., Martinez, J.M., Hoven, C.W., Mandell, D.J., Gorman, J.M., Pine, D.S. Biol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Citalopram in pregnancy and lactation. Heikkinen, T., Ekblad, U., Kero, P., Ekblad, S., Laine, K. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. The role of GABA in anxiety disorders. Lydiard, R.B. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Benzodiazepine-induced chemotaxis is impaired in monocytes from patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Sacerdote, P., Panerai, A.E., Frattola, L., Ferrarese, C. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Comorbid migraine with aura, anxiety, and depression is associated with dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) NcoI alleles. Peroutka, S.J., Price, S.C., Wilhoit, T.L., Jones, K.W. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortical pathology in generalized anxiety disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study. Mathew, S.J., Mao, X., Coplan, J.D., Smith, E.L., Sackeim, H.A., Gorman, J.M., Shungu, D.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Anxious and depressive disorders and their comorbidity: effect on central nervous system noradrenergic function. Cameron, O.G., Abelson, J.L., Young, E.A. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. The impact of early adverse experiences on brain systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and affective disorders. Heim, C., Nemeroff, C.B. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Pentagastrin infusions in patients with panic disorder. I. Symptoms and cardiovascular responses. Abelson, J.L., Nesse, R.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors 1 and 2 in CRF-potentiated acoustic startle in mice. Risbrough, V.B., Hauger, R.L., Pelleymounter, M.A., Geyer, M.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Association analysis of the functional Ala111Glu polymorphism of the glyoxalase I gene in panic disorder. Politi, P., Minoretti, P., Falcone, C., Martinelli, V., Emanuele, E. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Neuroendocrine responses to psychological stress in adolescents with anxiety disorder. Gerra, G., Zaimovic, A., Zambelli, U., Timpano, M., Reali, N., Bernasconi, S., Brambilla, F. Neuropsychobiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. An association between a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene and aggression in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Nolan, K.A., Volavka, J., Lachman, H.M., Saito, T. Psychiatr. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. The neurobiology and control of anxious states. Millan, M.J. Prog. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Review of the side-effect profile of buspirone. Newton, R.E., Marunycz, J.D., Alderdice, M.T., Napoliello, M.J. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  36. PET in generalized anxiety disorder. Wu, J.C., Buchsbaum, M.S., Hershey, T.G., Hazlett, E., Sicotte, N., Johnson, J.C. Biol. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Topographic EEG changes with benzodiazepine administration in generalized anxiety disorder. Buchsbaum, M.S., Hazlett, E., Sicotte, N., Stein, M., Wu, J., Zetin, M. Biol. Psychiatry (1985) [Pubmed]
  38. Escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: randomised, placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage study. Kasper, S., Stein, D.J., Loft, H., Nil, R. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2005) [Pubmed]
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