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Chemical Compound Review

ammonia     azane

Synonyms: Ammoniak, ammoniac, amoniaco, Ammoniaca, Amoniak, ...
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Disease relevance of ammonia

  • Although the mechanism for the impairment of nitrogen use caused by High Nitrogen Vivonex is unknown, its low biologic value and tendency to cause azotemia should be kept in mind [1].
  • Here we show that there are unicellular cyanobacteria in the open ocean that are expressing nitrogenase, and are abundant enough to potentially have a significant role in N dynamics [2].
  • Effects of tertiary amine local anesthetics on the blood-borne implantation and cell surface properties of metastatic mouse melanoma cells [3].
  • BACKGROUND: Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year [4].
  • In Escherichia coli, previous studies have indicated that binding of the P(II) signal transduction protein GlnK to the ammonia channel AmtB regulates the channel thereby controlling ammonium influx in response to the intracellular nitrogen status [5].

Psychiatry related information on ammonia

  • Stimulus generalization occurred with the racemate and the R-(-) enantiomer of the alpha-methyl homologue and the S-(+) enantiomer of the alpha-ethyl primary amine [6].
  • Oxybutynin chloride (Ditropan), a tertiary amine possessing anticholinergic and papaverine-like, direct muscular antispasmodic effects, has been used in controlled clinical studies in patients with neurovesical reflex activity, uninhibited bladders, enuresis, and primary muscle spasm [7].
  • It also concludes that cows may be able to adapt to high nitrogen diets so that diets that may reduce their fertility when introduced at critical periods, for example, when they are inseminated, do not reduce it when introduced at an earlier stage [8].
  • The reaction time for tertiary amines was 2 h or less, and 15 min for compounds having primary and secondary amine groups [9].
  • 1. Equal dose regimens of amitriptyline, a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant, were more potent than nortriptyline, a secondary amine derivative, in suppressing CDF-1 mouse locomotor activity [10].

High impact information on ammonia


Chemical compound and disease context of ammonia


Biological context of ammonia


Anatomical context of ammonia

  • Tertiary amine local anesthetics facilitated concanavalin A-induced redistribution of lectin receptors on murine BALB/3T3 cells and enhanced the susceptibility of these cells to agglutination by concanavalin A [25].
  • Ammonium ion generated by neutrophils and other cells can react with hypochlorous acid to produce monochloramine, an oxidant with good microbicidal activity, but relative resistance to inactivation by other compounds [26].
  • Fluorescent probes with known specificity for certain membrane areas were used to survey membrane dynamics; these probes included fluorescamine, which binds to primary amines on the cell surface, and both 12(9)-anthroyl stearate, 12(9)AS, and 2(9)-anthroyl stearate, 2(9)AS, which insert at different depths in the hydrocarbon core of membranes [27].
  • These studies suggest that fluorescamine, attached to primary amines of the cell surface in intact HD erythrocytes, has increased rotational mobility whereas the anthroyl moiety of 12(9)AS in the hydrocarbon interior has decreased rotational mobility [27].
  • The enzyme is mainly localized extracellularly in the small intestine where primary amines as substrates for the competing transamidation reaction are present [28].

Associations of ammonia with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ammonia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ammonia


  1. Increased ureagenesis and impaired nitrogen use during infusion of a synthetic amino acid formula: a controlled trial. Smith, J.L., Arteaga, C., Heymsfield, S.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Unicellular cyanobacteria fix N2 in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Zehr, J.P., Waterbury, J.B., Turner, P.J., Montoya, J.P., Omoregie, E., Steward, G.F., Hansen, A., Karl, D.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of tertiary amine local anesthetics on the blood-borne implantation and cell surface properties of metastatic mouse melanoma cells. Nicolson, G.L., Fidler, I.J., Poste, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss: a randomised trial. STORM Study Group. Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance. James, W.P., Astrup, A., Finer, N., Hilsted, J., Kopelman, P., Rössner, S., Saris, W.H., Van Gaal, L.F. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli AmtB-GlnK complex reveals how GlnK regulates the ammonia channel. Conroy, M.J., Durand, A., Lupo, D., Li, X.D., Bullough, P.A., Winkler, F.K., Merrick, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Derivatives of 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine: representatives of a novel therapeutic class. Nichols, D.E., Hoffman, A.J., Oberlender, R.A., Jacob, P., Shulgin, A.T. J. Med. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Oxybutynin in bladder spasm, neurogenic bladder, and enuresis. Thompson, I.M., Lauvetz, R. Urology (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Recent research on the effects of excess dietary nitrogen on the fertility of dairy cows. Laven, R.A., Scaramuzzi, R.J., Wathes, D.C., Peters, A.R., Parkinson, T.J. Vet. Rec. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Fluorescent labeling of drugs and simple organic compounds containing amine functional groups, utilizing dansyl chloride in Na(2)CO(3) buffer. Bartzatt, R. Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of amitriptyline and nortriptyline on cerebral activity of the CDF-1 mouse strain. Messiha, F.S. Gen. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Primary amines inhibit recycling of alpha 2M receptors in fibroblasts. Van Leuven, F., Cassiman, J.J., Van Den Berghe, H. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Biochemical profile or uremic breath. Simenhoff, M.L., Burke, J.F., Saukkonen, J.J., Ordinario, A.T., Doty, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Myeloperoxidase-dependent effect of amines on functions of isolated neutrophils. Thomas, E.L., Grisham, M.B., Jefferson, M.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. The chemistry of dimethyl carbonate. Tundo, P., Selva, M. Acc. Chem. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Chloroplast iron-sulfur cluster protein maturation requires the essential cysteine desulfurase CpNifS. Van Hoewyk, D., Abdel-Ghany, S.E., Cohu, C.M., Herbert, S.K., Kugrens, P., Pilon, M., Pilon-Smits, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxidative stress in pneumococcal meningitis: A future target for adjunctive therapy? Klein, M., Koedel, U., Pfister, H.W. Prog. Neurobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Flauoprotein structure and mechanism 2. Monoamine oxidases: old friends hold many surprises. Singer, T.P., Ramsay, R.R. FASEB J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Augmentation of NZB Autoimmune Phenotypes by the Sle1c Murine Lupus Susceptibility Interval. Giles, B.M., Tchepeleva, S.N., Kachinski, J.J., Ruff, K., Croker, B.P., Morel, L., Boackle, S.A. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Screening for the preferred substrate sequence of transglutaminase using a phage-displayed peptide library: identification of peptide substrates for TGASE 2 and Factor XIIIA. Sugimura, Y., Hosono, M., Wada, F., Yoshimura, T., Maki, M., Hitomi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Medical Management of Paget's Disease of Bone: Indications for Treatment and Review of Current Therapies. Siris, E.S., Lyles, K.W., Singer, F.R., Meunier, P.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant functioning. Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B., Ellsworth, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. enod40 induces dedifferentiation and division of root cortical cells in legumes. Charon, C., Johansson, C., Kondorosi, E., Kondorosi, A., Crespi, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of 21 Different Nitrogen Sources on Global Gene Expression in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Godard, P., Urrestarazu, A., Vissers, S., Kontos, K., Bontempi, G., van Helden, J., André, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Loss of the TOR Kinase Tor2 Mimics Nitrogen Starvation and Activates the Sexual Development Pathway in Fission Yeast. Matsuo, T., Otsubo, Y., Urano, J., Tamanoi, F., Yamamoto, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Local anesthetics affect transmembrane cytoskeletal control of mobility and distribution of cell surface receptors. Poste, G., Papahadjopoulos, D., Nicolson, G.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Candidacidal activity of the neutrophil myeloperoxidase system can be protected from excess hydrogen peroxide by the presence of ammonium ion. Beilke, M.A., Collins-Lech, C., Sohnle, P.G. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Membrane studies in Huntington's disease: steady-state fluorescence studies of intact erythrocytes. Pettegrew, J.W., Nichols, J.S., Stewart, R.M. Ann. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Gliadin T cell epitope selection by tissue transglutaminase in celiac disease. Role of enzyme specificity and pH influence on the transamidation versus deamidation process. Fleckenstein, B., Molberg, Ø., Qiao, S.W., Schmid, D.G., von der Mülbe, F., Elgstøen, K., Jung, G., Sollid, L.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Tritium labeling of proteins to high specific radioactivity by reduction methylation. Tack, B.F., Dean, J., Eilat, D., Lorenz, P.E., Schechter, A.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Use of indirect site-directed mutagenesis to alter the substrate specificity of methylamine dehydrogenase. Wang, Y., Sun, D., Davidson, V.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid conjugation in the nervous system. Högestätt, E.D., Jönsson, B.A., Ermund, A., Andersson, D.A., Björk, H., Alexander, J.P., Cravatt, B.F., Basbaum, A.I., Zygmunt, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Protein carboxyl methyltransferase selectively modifies an atypical form of calmodulin. Evidence for methylation at deamidated asparagine residues. Johnson, B.A., Freitag, N.E., Aswad, D.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate inhibition of adenovirus DNA polymerase. Monaghan, A., Hay, R.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Inhibition of glutamine transport into mitochondria protects astrocytes from ammonia toxicity. Pichili, V.B., Rao, K.V., Jayakumar, A.R., Norenberg, M.D. Glia (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Na-K-Cl Cotransporter-1 in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Jayakumar, A.R., Liu, M., Moriyama, M., Ramakrishnan, R., Forbush, B., Reddy, P.V., Norenberg, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  36. Lysyl oxidases: a novel multifunctional amine oxidase family. Csiszar, K. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sit4 Phosphatase Is Active Irrespective of the Nitrogen Source Provided, and Gln3 Phosphorylation Levels Become Nitrogen Source-responsive in a sit4-deleted Strain. Tate, J.J., Feller, A., Dubois, E., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by therapeutic drugs. Zhou, S., Yung Chan, S., Cher Goh, B., Chan, E., Duan, W., Huang, M., McLeod, H.L. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Regio- and stereoselective oxygenations by adult human liver flavin-containing monooxygenase 3. Comparison with forms 1 and 2. Lomri, N., Yang, Z., Cashman, J.R. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Characterization of rabbit UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A7: tertiary amine glucuronidation is catalyzed by UGT1A7 and UGT1A4. Bruck, M., Li, Q., Lamb, J.G., Tukey, R.H. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  41. Fast and selective ammonia transport by aquaporin-8. Saparov, S.M., Liu, K., Agre, P., Pohl, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  42. Inaugural Article: Inorganic nitrogen availability after severe stand-replacing fire in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Turner, M.G., Smithwick, E.A., Metzger, K.L., Tinker, D.B., Romme, W.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  43. Structures of neutral O-linked polylactosaminoglycans on human skim milk mucins. A novel type of linearly extended poly-N-acetyllactosamine backbones with Gal beta(1-4)GlcNAc beta(1-6) repeating units. Hanisch, F.G., Uhlenbruck, G., Peter-Katalinic, J., Egge, H., Dabrowski, J., Dabrowski, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  44. Primary amines inhibit the triggering of B lymphocytes to antibody synthesis. Julian, C., Speck, N.A., Pierce, S.K. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  45. Binding of IL-1 beta to alpha-macroglobulins and release by thioredoxin. Borth, W., Scheer, B., Urbansky, A., Luger, T.A., Sottrup-Jensen, L. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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