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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Thyrotoxicosis


Psychiatry related information on Thyrotoxicosis


High impact information on Thyrotoxicosis


Chemical compound and disease context of Thyrotoxicosis


Biological context of Thyrotoxicosis


Anatomical context of Thyrotoxicosis


Gene context of Thyrotoxicosis

  • Clinical thyrotoxicosis is directly caused by autoantibodies that activate the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) [26].
  • GH peak values (mean +/- SE; micrograms per L) were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients compared to those in control subjects after GHRH alone (9.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 27.0 +/- 5.2) and GHRP-6 plus GHRH (22.5 +/- 3.5 vs. 83.7 +/- 15.2); a lack of the normal synergistic effect of the association of both peptides was observed in thyrotoxicosis [27].
  • Moreover, thyrotoxicosis was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in beta 2-adrenoceptor number (P < 0.005), but unchanged beta 1-adrenoceptor levels [28].
  • On the other hand, we were able to identify the R83H mutation in the KCNE3 gene in one sporadic case of THypoKPP, a man who had been asymptomatic until developing thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease; we confirmed the disease-causing mutation in 2 of 3 descendants [29].
  • CONCLUSION: Adult-onset type 1 diabetic patients some years post-diagnosis from central Africa show GAD, IA2 or TPO Abs; and surprisingly, patients with thyrotoxicosis had a similar frequency of diabetes-associated autoantibodies [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thyrotoxicosis


  1. Thyroidectomy for amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. Farwell, A.P., Abend, S.L., Huang, S.K., Patwardhan, N.A., Braverman, L.E. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Hyperthyroidism after propranolol withdrawal. Shenkman, L., Podrid, P., Lowenstein, J. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Direct stimulation of bone resorption by thyroid hormones. Mundy, G.R., Shapiro, J.L., Bandelin, J.G., Canalis, E.M., Raisz, L.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Temporary hypothyroidism after surgical treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Toft, A.D., Irvine, W.J., McIntosh, D., Seth, J., Cameron, E.H., Lidgard, G.P. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Elevation of serum free triiodothyronine, total triiodothyronine, thyroxine-binding globulin, and total thyroxine levels in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Mason, J., Southwick, S., Yehuda, R., Wang, S., Riney, S., Bremner, D., Johnson, D., Lubin, H., Blake, D., Zhou, G. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Gestational thyrotoxicosis manifesting as wernicke encephalopathy: a case report. Otsuka, F., Tada, K., Ogura, T., Hayakawa, N., Mimura, Y., Yamauchi, T., Inoue, N., Makino, H., Kudo, T. Endocr. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Thyroxine abuse: an unusual case of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy. Wark, H., Wallace, E.M., Wigg, S., Tippett, C. The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Thyroxine therapy. Toft, A.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Low serum thyroglobulin as a clue to the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis factitia. Mariotti, S., Martino, E., Cupini, C., Lari, R., Giani, C., Baschieri, L., Pinchera, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Variable plasma propranolol levels in thyrotoxicosis. Rubenfeld, S., Silverman, V.E., Welch, K.M., Mallette, L.E., Kohler, P.O. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Perchlorate and the thyroid gland. Wolff, J. Pharmacol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Thyrotoxicosis and the heart. Woeber, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Thyrotoxicosis after a single ingestion of levothyroxine. Hofe, S.E., Young, R.L. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Letter: Lithium in thyrotoxicosis. Lazarus, J.H., Richards, A.R., Addison, G.M., Owen, G.M. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Hyperinsulinaemia in thyrotoxic hypokalaemic periodic paralysis. Lee, K.O., Taylor, E.A., Oh, V.M., Cheah, J.S., Aw, S.E. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased clearance of propranolol in thyrotoxicosis. Feely, J., Stevenson, I.H., Crooks, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. T4-throid storm in pernicious anemia. Ogbuawa, O., Johnson, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. 'Travelers' thyrotoxicosis'. Transitory thyrotoxicosis induced by iodinated preparations for water purification. Liel, Y., Alkan, M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of human adipocyte gene expression by thyroid hormone. Viguerie, N., Millet, L., Avizou, S., Vidal, H., Larrouy, D., Langin, D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Resistance to thyroid hormone does not abrogate the transient thyrotoxicosis associated with gestation: report of a case. Anselmo, J., Kay, T., Dennis, K., Szmulewitz, R., Refetoff, S., Weiss, R.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Thyroid function after surgical treatment of thyrotoxicosis. A report of 100 cases treated with propranolol before operation. Toft, A.D., Irvine, W.J., Sinclair, I., McIntosh, D., Seth, J., Cameron, E.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Chronic cardiac-specific thyrotoxicosis increases myocardial beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Carvalho-Bianco, S.D., Kim, B.W., Zhang, J.X., Harney, J.W., Ribeiro, R.S., Gereben, B., Bianco, A.C., Mende, U., Larsen, P.R. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Recurrence of thyrotoxicosis after attack of allergic rhinitis in patients with Graves' disease. Hidaka, Y., Amino, N., Iwatani, Y., Itoh, E., Matsunaga, M., Tamaki, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutational analysis of the thyrotropin receptor gene in sporadic and familial feline thyrotoxicosis. Pearce, S.H., Foster, D.J., Imrie, H., Myerscough, N., Beckett, G.J., Thoday, K.L., Kendall-Taylor, P. Thyroid (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Forearm muscle metabolism in primary hypothyroidism. Harris, P.E., Walker, M., Clark, F., Home, P.D., Alberti, K.G. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. The thyrotropin receptor autoantigen in Graves disease is the culprit as well as the victim. Chen, C.R., Pichurin, P., Nagayama, Y., Latrofa, F., Rapoport, B., McLachlan, S.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Different growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide and GH-releasing hormone in hyperthyroidism. Ramos-Dias, J.C., Pimentel-Filho, F., Reis, A.F., Lengyel, A.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Catecholamine-induced adipocyte lipolysis in human hyperthyroidism. Hellström, L., Wahrenberg, H., Reynisdottir, S., Arner, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. A mutation in the KCNE3 potassium channel gene is associated with susceptibility to thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Dias Da Silva, M.R., Cerutti, J.M., Arnaldi, L.A., Maciel, R.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Frequency of diabetes and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune endocrine disease from Cameroon. Hawa, M.I., Picardi, A., Costanza, F., D'Avola, D., Beretta Anguissola, G., Guglielmi, C., Mottini, G., Fezeu, L., Mbanya, J.C., Leslie, R.D., Pozzilli, P. Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis in a woman with a multinodular goiter taking levothyroxine. Reith, P.E., Granner, D.K. Arch. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. In vivo SPECT quantitation of bone metabolism in hyperparathyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. Israel, O., Front, D., Hardoff, R., Ish-Shalom, S., Jerushalmi, J., Kolodny, G.M. J. Nucl. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. When should it be treated and what can be safely taken? Nelson-Piercy, C. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (1998) [Pubmed]
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