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Gene Review

SULT2A1  -  sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 2A,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Bile salt sulfotransferase, DHEA-ST, DHEAS, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase, HST, ...
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Disease relevance of SULT2A1


Psychiatry related information on SULT2A1

  • The enzyme in the adrenal responsible for synthesising DHEAS, hydroxysteroid sulphotransferase (HST), is therefore essential for human development [6].
  • To fully exploit the reflex-testing capabilities and maximize the potential of the HST a computerized decision-making algorithm was developed [7].

High impact information on SULT2A1

  • These reciprocal changes in mRNA concentrations in mutant females were reflected by an induction of a high affinity estrogen sulfotransferase activity and a concomitant loss of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase activity [8].
  • We found that activation of PXR also increases the activity and gene expression of the phase II conjugating enzyme dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (STD) known to sulfate LCA to facilitate its elimination [9].
  • DST has a broad range of substrate specificity and is responsible for the age- and sex-specific activation of certain polycyclic aromatic hepatocarcinogens as well, by converting them to electrophilic sulfonated derivatives [10].
  • Androgen inactivation via sulfonation of the hormone by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DST), an androgen-repressible enzyme, also contributes to the age- and sex-dependent regulation of hepatic androgen sensitivity [10].
  • The findings in this large study show a significant contribution to mortality among untreated early post-myocardial infarction survivors from transient STD on 24-hour monitoring [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of SULT2A1


Biological context of SULT2A1


Anatomical context of SULT2A1


Associations of SULT2A1 with chemical compounds

  • Crystal structure of human cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b) in the presence of pregnenolone and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate. Rationale for specificity differences between prototypical SULT2A1 and the SULT2BG1 isoforms [23].
  • SULT2A1 is highly expressed in the adrenal where it is responsible for the sulfation of hydroxysteroids including conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and in the liver where it is responsible for sulfation of bile acids and circulating hydroxysteroids [24].
  • Taken together, the expression of ERRalpha in the adrenal and its regulation of SULT2A1 suggest an important role for this orphan receptor in the regulation of adrenal steroid production [25].
  • Cycloheximide inhibited T(3)-induced SULT2A1 expression, suggesting that regulation was indirect [16].
  • In the present study, we have investigated the hypothesis that OHPCBs interact with family 2 hydroxysteroid (alcohol) SULTs (e.g., human SULT2A1), enzymes that are physiologically important for the metabolic transformations of several key endogenous hydroxysteroids as well as xenobiotic alcohols [26].

Regulatory relationships of SULT2A1

  • Human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) also upregulated hSULT2A1 gene expression while human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) downregulated it [27].
  • The natural xanthones reversibly inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 7 microM whereas much higher amounts of these compounds were required to inhibit SULT2A1 (IC50 values of 26-204 microM) [28].

Other interactions of SULT2A1

  • The results of this study suggest that DHEA-ST is the major steroid ST present in human liver and adrenal tissue and that the physical, biochemical, and kinetic properties of adrenal DHEA-ST are similar if not identical to those of the liver form of the enzyme [20].
  • SULT1E1 displayed the lowest Km (0.2 microM) for 4-OHT sulfation and SULT2A1 the lowest (0.3 microM) for raloxifene sulfation [29].
  • Low activity with SULT1B1 was only seen at the highest concentration (100 microM) and no activity with SULT1C2 or SULT2A1 was observed [30].
  • Both SF1 and GATA-6 were positive regulators of SULT2A1 promoter constructs [24].
  • The thermal inactivation profile of E1 ST suggested that this activity might be related to both DHEA ST and TS PST [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SULT2A1


  1. Identification and characterization of cytosolic sulfotransferase activities in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Falany, J.L., Lawing, L., Falany, C.N. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Association of SULT2A1 allelic variants with plasma adrenal androgens and prostate cancer in African American men. Wilborn, T.W., Lang, N.P., Smith, M., Meleth, S., Falany, C.N. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Rat, but not human, sulfotransferase activates a tamoxifen metabolite to produce DNA adducts and gene mutations in bacteria and mammalian cells in culture. Glatt, H., Davis, W., Meinl, W., Hermersdörfer, H., Venitt, S., Phillips, D.H. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Role for enhanced faecal excretion of bile acid in hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase-mediated protection against lithocholic acid-induced liver toxicity. Miyata, M., Watase, H., Hori, W., Shimada, M., Nagata, K., Gonzalez, F.J., Yamazoe, Y. Xenobiotica (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Defective T cell receptor signaling and CD8+ thymic selection in humans lacking zap-70 kinase. Arpaia, E., Shahar, M., Dadi, H., Cohen, A., Roifman, C.M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Human fetal adrenal hydroxysteroid sulphotransferase: cDNA cloning, stable expression in V79 cells and functional characterisation of the expressed enzyme. Forbes, K.J., Hagen, M., Glatt, H., Hume, R., Coughtrie, M.W. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. The impact of an integrated haematology screening system on laboratory practice. Macdonald, A.J., Bradshaw, A.E., Holmes, W.A., Lewis, S.M. Clinical and laboratory haematology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Obesity-induced diabetes (diabesity) in C57BL/KsJ mice produces aberrant trans-regulation of sex steroid sulfotransferase genes. Leiter, E.H., Chapman, H.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of a xenobiotic sulfonation cascade by nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR). Sonoda, J., Xie, W., Rosenfeld, J.M., Barwick, J.L., Guzelian, P.S., Evans, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Targeted overexpression of androgen receptor with a liver-specific promoter in transgenic mice. Chatterjee, B., Song, C.S., Jung, M.H., Chen, S., Walter, C.A., Herbert, D.C., Weaker, F.J., Mancini, M.A., Roy, A.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Intermittent ST depression and mortality after myocardial infarction. Ruberman, W., Crow, R., Rosenberg, C.R., Rautaharju, P.M., Shore, R.E., Pasternack, B.S. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase as a possible shunt for the control of steroid metabolism in human mammary carcinoma. Adams, J.B., Chandra, D.P. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression of human estrogen sulfotransferase in Salmonella typhimurium: differences between hHST and hEST in the enantioselective activation of 1-hydroxyethylpyrene to a mutagen. Hagen, M., Pabel, U., Landsiedel, R., Bartsch, I., Falany, C.N., Glatt, H. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase: purification and characterization of a recombinant protein. Chang, H.J., Zhou, M., Lin, S.X. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in patients with asymptomatic cortisol producing adrenal adenoma: comparison with adrenal Cushing's syndrome and non-functional adrenal tumor. Morio, H., Terano, T., Yamamoto, K., Tomizuka, T., Oeda, T., Saito, Y., Tamura, Y., Sasano, H. Endocr. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Indirect regulation of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase family 1A member 2 by thyroid hormones. Huang, Y.H., Lee, C.Y., Tai, P.J., Yen, C.C., Liao, C.Y., Chen, W.J., Liao, C.J., Cheng, W.L., Chen, R.N., Wu, S.M., Wang, C.S., Lin, K.H. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2B1: two enzymes encoded by a single chromosome 19 gene. Her, C., Wood, T.C., Eichler, E.E., Mohrenweiser, H.W., Ramagli, L.S., Siciliano, M.J., Weinshilboum, R.M. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Biochemical characterization and tissue distribution of human SULT2B1. Geese, W.J., Raftogianis, R.B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of sulphotransferase expression in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle, by oral contraceptives and during early pregnancy. Rubin, G.L., Harrold, A.J., Mills, J.A., Falany, C.N., Coughtrie, M.W. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunological characterization of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase from human liver and adrenal. Comer, K.A., Falany, C.N. Mol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression and characterization of the human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferases (SULT2B1a and SULT2B1b). Meloche, C.A., Falany, C.N. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Human jejunal estrogen sulfotransferase and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase: immunochemical characterization of individual variation. Her, C., Szumlanski, C., Aksoy, I.A., Weinshilboum, R.M. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Crystal structure of human cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b) in the presence of pregnenolone and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate. Rationale for specificity differences between prototypical SULT2A1 and the SULT2BG1 isoforms. Lee, K.A., Fuda, H., Lee, Y.C., Negishi, M., Strott, C.A., Pedersen, L.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Steroid sulfotransferase 2A1 gene transcription is regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA-6 in the human adrenal. Saner, K.J., Suzuki, T., Sasano, H., Pizzey, J., Ho, C., Strauss, J.F., Carr, B.R., Rainey, W.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Transcriptional regulation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) by estrogen-related receptor alpha. Seely, J., Amigh, K.S., Suzuki, T., Mayhew, B., Sasano, H., Giguere, V., Laganière, J., Carr, B.R., Rainey, W.E. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls Are Substrates and Inhibitors of Human Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase SULT2A1. Liu, Y., Apak, T.I., Lehmler, H.J., Robertson, L.W., Duffel, M.W. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Nuclear receptor interactions in methotrexate induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1). Chen, X., Maiti, S., Zhang, J., Chen, G. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Natural products isolated from Mexican medicinal plants: novel inhibitors of sulfotransferases, SULT1A1 and SULT2A1. Mesía-Vela, S., Sańchez, R.I., Estrada-Muñiz, E., Alavez-Solano, D., Torres-Sosa, C., Jiménez, M., Estrada, n.u.l.l., Reyes-Chilpa, R., Kauffman, F.C. Phytomedicine (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Sulfation of raloxifene and 4-hydroxytamoxifen by human cytosolic sulfotransferases. Falany, J.L., Pilloff, D.E., Leyh, T.S., Falany, C.N. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Sulfation of apomorphine by human sulfotransferases: evidence of a major role for the polymorphic phenol sulfotransferase, SULT1A1. Thomas, N.L., Coughtrie, M.W. Xenobiotica (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Sulfation of estrone and 17 beta-estradiol in human liver. Catalysis by thermostable phenol sulfotransferase and by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase. Hernández, J.S., Watson, R.W., Wood, T.C., Weinshilboum, R.M. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Human sulfotransferase SULT2A1 pharmacogenetics: genotype-to-phenotype studies. Thomae, B.A., Eckloff, B.W., Freimuth, R.R., Wieben, E.D., Weinshilboum, R.M. Pharmacogenomics J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase: molecular cloning and expression of cDNA. Otterness, D.M., Wieben, E.D., Wood, T.C., Watson, W.G., Madden, B.J., McCormick, D.J., Weinshilboum, R.M. Mol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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