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Chemical Compound Review

Benoxil     2-diethylaminoethyl 4-amino-3-butoxy-benzoate

Synonyms: Conjucain, Dorsacain, Fluress, Novescine, Novesin, ...
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Disease relevance of Oxybuprocaine


High impact information on Oxybuprocaine

  • The individual ratios between Oxybuprocaine- and saline-instilled eyes in the NIDDM and IDDM patients differed significantly from those in the healthy controls (mean ratios: 2.6, 1.9, and 1.0, respectively; P less than 0.002) [6].
  • Oxybuprocaine induces a false-positive response in immunochromatographic SAS Adeno Test [2].
  • INTERVENTION: Eyes were randomly assigned to two groups: one group received 0.15 ml intracameral 1% unpreserved lidocaine combined with topical anesthesia (oxybuprocaine); the other group received 6 ml prilocaine peribulbar before phacoemulsification with sclerocorneal tunnel incision [7].
  • Abuse of oxybuprocaine appears to produce irreversible damage to the apical cell attachments at the level of the corneal endothelial cells [1].
  • The drug treatment protocol comprised topical applications of 0.4% benoxinate, a local anaesthetic (to improve drug absorption), followed either by 0.5% timolol or distilled water (control), either daily (1000 hr) or twice daily (1000, 1600 hr) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Oxybuprocaine

  • Two weeks before, a corneal ulcer was diagnosed, and oxybuprocaine 0.05% (Lacrimin, Santen, Osaka, Japan) eye drops were prescribed 4 times daily but used every 5 to 10 minutes because the right eye was severely irritated [9].
  • The ability to recover from bacterial contaminations with Staphylococcus auresus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined for three optometric DPAs: Fluress, fluorescein and benoxinate [10].
  • These data are discussed according to the different mechanisms of action of the three drugs BAK and Oxybuprocaine were found to exert a more direct cell toxicity whereas phenylephrine chloride acted indirectly by causing the sloughing of the cell monolayer [11].

Biological context of Oxybuprocaine


Anatomical context of Oxybuprocaine


Associations of Oxybuprocaine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Oxybuprocaine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oxybuprocaine


  1. Ultrastructural alterations in the endothelium in a patient with topical anesthetic abuse keratopathy. Risco, J.M., Millar, L.C. Ophthalmology (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Oxybuprocaine induces a false-positive response in immunochromatographic SAS Adeno Test. Hoshino, T., Takanashi, T., Okada, M., Uchida, S. Ophthalmology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Bradycardia as a side-effect to oxybuprocaine. Christensen, C. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Periorbital allergic contact dermatitis from oxybuprocaine. Blaschke, V., Fuchs, T. Contact Derm. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Fibrinous iritis due to oxybuprocaine. Haddad, R. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Corneal epithelial barrier function after oxybuprocaine provocation in diabetics. Stolwijk, T.R., van Best, J.A., Boor, J.P., Lemkes, H.H., Oosterhuis, J.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Clinical and electrophysiologic results after intracameral lidocaine 1% anesthesia: a prospective randomized study. Anders, N., Heuermann, T., Rüther, K., Hartmann, C. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Timolol lowers intraocular pressure but does not inhibit the development of experimental myopia in chick. Schmid, K.L., Abbott, M., Humphries, M., Pyne, K., Wildsoet, C.F. Exp. Eye Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Toxic keratopathy associated with abuse of low-dose anesthetic: a case report. Chen, H.T., Chen, K.H., Hsu, W.M. Cornea (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Fluress, fluorescein and benoxinate: recovery from bacterial contamination. Yolton, D.P., German, C.J. Journal of the American Optometric Association. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Cytotoxicity studies in ophthalmology. Lapalus, P., Ettaiche, M., Fredj-Reygrobellet, D., Jambou, D., Elena, P.P. Lens and eye toxicity research. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Studies on the metabolism of benoxinate by human pseudocholinesterase. Dubbels, R., Schloot, W. Metabolic, pediatric, and systemic ophthalmology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Painless needle insertion in regional anesthesia of the eye. Vaalamo, M.O., Paloheimo, M.P., Nikki, P.H. Anesth. Analg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac and oxybuprocaine in human aqueous humor with HPLC and electrochemical detection. Kuhlmann, O., Stoldt, G., Struck, H.G., Krauss, G.J. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Apparent respiration rate of the human corneal epithelium with tetracaine HCl and benoxinate HCl. Bentley, C.R., Larke, J.R. American journal of optometry and physiological optics. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Validity of fluorexon disodium versus sodium fluorescein for use in goldmann tonometry. Ng, L.T., Tong, J.W., De Land, P.N. Cornea (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Corneal epithelial permeability after instillation of ophthalmic solutions containing local anaesthetics and preservatives. Ramselaar, J.A., Boot, J.P., van Haeringen, N.J., van Best, J.A., Oosterhuis, J.A. Curr. Eye Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Anesthetic effects from low concentrations of proparacaine and benoxinate. Jauregui, M.J., Sanders, T.J., Polse, K.A. Journal of the American Optometric Association. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. NMR crystallography of oxybuprocaine hydrochloride, Modification II degrees. Harris, R.K., Cadars, S., Emsley, L., Yates, J.R., Pickard, C.J., Jetti, R.K., Griesser, U.J. Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Diclofenac vs oxybuprocaine eyedrops for analgesia in paediatric strabismus surgery. Morton, N.S., Benham, S.W., Lawson, R.A., McNicol, L.R. Paediatric anaesthesia. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Oxybuprocaine and five metabolites simultaneously determined in urine by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction with Extrelut. Kasuya, F., Igarashi, K., Fukui, M. Clin. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of six metabolites of oxybuprocaine in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Kasuya, F., Igarashi, K., Fukui, M. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of oxybuprocaine 0.4% in preventing surgically induced miosis. van Rij, G., Renardel de Lavalette, J.G., Baarsma, G.S., Jansen, J.T. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1984) [Pubmed]
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