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Chemical Compound Review

Taigalor     (4E)-8-chloro-4-[hydroxy- (pyridin-2...

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Disease relevance of Lorcam


High impact information on Lorcam

  • Clinical pharmacokinetics of lornoxicam. A short half-life oxicam [5].
  • Lornoxicam is eliminated following biotransformation to 5'-hydroxy-lornoxicam, which does not undergo enterohepatic recirculation [5].
  • Substantial concentrations of lornoxicam are attained in synovial fluid, the proposed site of action in chronic inflammatory arthropathies [5].
  • This randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial compared the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of intramuscular (IM) injections of lornoxicam (4, 8, 16 and 20 mg) with morphine (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in 252 patients with mainly moderate to severe pain following surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar [6].
  • RESULTS: Lornoxicam 8 mg b.d. caused significantly less mucosal injury than naproxen 500 mg b.d. in the stomach/duodenal bulb, as well as in the mid/distal duodenum [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lorcam


Biological context of Lorcam

  • The effects of allelic variants of CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3) on lornoxicam 5'-hydroxylation were studied using the corresponding variant protein expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and human liver microsomes of known genotypes of CYP2C9 [2].
  • In a subsequent clinical study, the AUC of lornoxicam was increased by 1.9-fold and its oral clearance (CL/F) decreased by 44% in three CYP2C9*1/*13 subjects, compared with CYP2C9*1/*1 individuals [12].
  • These results suggest that lornoxicam is an alternative to morphine when administered by PCA for the treatment of moderate to severe postoperative pain [13].
  • CONCLUSION: Lornoxicam may cause gastrointestinal and renal side effects without oxidative stress [14].
  • To examine enzymatic activity of the CYP2C9*13 allele, kinetic parameters for lornoxicam 5'-hydroxylation were determined in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with pcDNA3.1 plasmids carrying wild-type CYP2C9*1, variant CYP2C9*3, and CYP2C9*13 cDNA [12].

Anatomical context of Lorcam

  • Lornoxicam 5'-hydroxylation was also determined in liver microsomes of 12 humans genotyped for the CYP2C9 gene (*1/*1, n = 7; *1/*2, n = 2; *1/*3, n = 2; *3/*3, n = 1) [2].
  • PURPOSE: To compare efficacy and patient outcome of wound infiltration with ropivacaine, lornoxicam, or their combination for control of pain following thyroid surgery [15].
  • Using the serum pepsinogen I as a parameter for the integrity of the gastric mucosa, this suggests good gastric tolerance of lornoxicam [16].

Associations of Lorcam with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Lorcam

  • The apparent affinity of lornoxicam was high for CYP2C9, but negligible for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 [22].
  • In stimulated monocytic cells (THP-1), lornoxicam showed a marked inhibition of IL-6 formation (IC50 54 microM) while the formation ofTNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 was only moderately affected [23].
  • The analgesic NSAID lornoxicam inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the formation of interleukin (IL)-6 in vitro [23].
  • In contrast lornoxicam and meloxicam, which demonstrated activity against COX-2, have revealed smaller partition capacity in liposomes/water systems together with a higher ability to change the membrane fluidity and surface potential [24].
  • RESULTS: Lornoxicam 5'-hydroxylation displayed single enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a KM of 3.6 mu mol center dot l-1 and a Vmax of 2.6 nmol center dot h-1 center dot mg-1 microsomal protein [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lorcam

  • A comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with lornoxicam versus morphine in patients undergoing lumbar disk surgery [13].
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lornoxicam (L) on sensory and motor block onset time, tourniquet pain, and postoperative analgesia, when added to lidocaine in intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) [17].
  • The analgesic efficacy and tolerability of lornoxicam (Xefo; Nycomed Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark), a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, was compared with that of morphine in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study of 96 patients with at least moderate pain after lumbar microsurgical discectomy [13].
  • The plasma concentrations of lornoxicam and 5'-hydroxylornoxicam were determined by HPLC method [25].
  • METHODS: In an open crossover study, six healthy male volunteers received racemic acenocoumarol (10 mg) orally without/with lornoxicam co-administration (8 mg twice daily) [18].


  1. Lornoxicam. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in the management of painful and inflammatory conditions. Balfour, J.A., Fitton, A., Barradell, L.B. Drugs (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Catalytic roles of CYP2C9 and its variants (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3) in lornoxicam 5'-hydroxylation. Iida, I., Miyata, A., Arai, M., Hirota, M., Akimoto, M., Higuchi, S., Kobayashi, K., Chiba, K. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of chronic oral toxicity and carcinogenic potential of lornoxicam in rats. Pohlmeyer-Esch, G., Mehdi, N., Clarke, D., Radhofer-Welte, S. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of lornoxicam on the physiology of severe sepsis. Memiş, D., Karamanlioğlu, B., Turan, A., Koyuncu, O., Pamukçu, Z. Critical care (London, England) (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical pharmacokinetics of lornoxicam. A short half-life oxicam. Skjodt, N.M., Davies, N.M. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Pain control after dental surgery: a double-blind, randomised trial of lornoxicam versus morphine. Nørholt, S.E., Sindet-Pedersen, S., Larsen, U., Bang, U., Ingerslev, J., Nielsen, O., Hansen, H.J., Ersbøll, A.K. Pain (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Gastrointestinal tolerability of lornoxicam compared to that of naproxen in healthy male volunteers. Aabakken, L., Osnes, M., Frenzel, W. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. A multicenter, randomized, double blind study comparing lornoxicam with diclofenac in osteoarthritis. Kidd, B., Frenzel, W. J. Rheumatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Parecoxib vs. lornoxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial. Papadima, A., Lagoudianakis, E.E., Antonakis, P.T., Pattas, M., Kremastinou, F., Katergiannakis, V., Manouras, A., Georgiou, L. European journal of anaesthesiology (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Analgesic efficacy and safety of lornoxicam quick-release formulation compared with diclofenac potassium: randomised, double-blind trial in acute low back pain. Yakhno, N., Guekht, A., Skoromets, A., Spirin, N., Strachunskaya, E., Ternavsky, A., Olsen, K.J., Moller, P.L. Clinical drug investigation (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Application of lornoxicam to patient-controlled analgesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries. Zhao, H., Ye, T.H., Gong, Z.Y., Xue, Y., Xue, Z.G., Huang, W.Q. Chin. Med. Sci. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of CYP2C9 and its variants (CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*13) in the metabolism of lornoxicam in humans. Guo, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, X., Si, D., Zhong, D., Fawcett, J.P., Zhou, H. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. A comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with lornoxicam versus morphine in patients undergoing lumbar disk surgery. Rosenow, D.E., Albrechtsen, M., Stolke, D. Anesth. Analg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The protective effect of nitroglycerin on gastrointestinal and renal side effects of lornoxicam in rats. Sen, S., Doger, F.K., Sen, S., Aydin, O.N., Karul, A., Dost, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Infiltration with ropivacaine plus lornoxicam reduces postoperative pain and opioid consumption. Karamanlioglu, B., Turan, A., Memis, D., Kaya, G., Ozata, S., Ture, M. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of lornoxicam on serum pepsinogen levels. Kullich, W., Klein, G., Pöllmann, G. Postgraduate medical journal. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. The analgesic effect of lornoxicam when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia. Sen, S., Ugur, B., Aydin, O.N., Ogurlu, M., Gezer, E., Savk, O. British journal of anaesthesia. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. No clinically relevant effect of lornoxicam intake on acenocoumarol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Masche, U.P., Rentsch, K.M., von Felten, A., Meier, P.J., Fattinger, K.E. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Opposite effects of lornoxicam co-administration on phenprocoumon pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Masche, U.P., Rentsch, K.M., von Felten, A., Meier, P.J., Fattinger, K.E. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Pain after elective arthroscopy of the knee: a prospective, randomised, study comparing conventional NSAID to coxib. Jacobson, E., Assareh, H., Cannerfelt, R., Renstr??m, P., Jakobsson, J. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Faecal calprotectin shedding after short-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Meling, T.R., Aabakken, L., Røseth, A., Osnes, M. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Role of human liver microsomal CYP2C9 in the biotransformation of lornoxicam. Bonnabry, P., Leemann, T., Dayer, P. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. The analgesic NSAID lornoxicam inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the formation of interleukin (IL)-6 in vitro. Berg, J., Fellier, H., Christoph, T., Grarup, J., Stimmeder, D. Inflamm. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Interactions Between Oxicams and Membrane Bilayers: an Explanation for Their Different COX Selectivity. L??cio, M., Ferreira, H., Lima, J.L., Reis, S. Medicinal chemistry (Sh???ariqah, United Arab Emirates) (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of the CYP2C9*3 allele on lornoxicam metabolism. Liu, Y.L., Zhang, W., Tan, Z.R., Ouyang, D.S., Luo, C.H., Liu, Z.Q., Qiu, Y., Chen, Y., He, Y.J., Zhou, G., Zhou, H.H. Clin. Chim. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
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