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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Selection Bias

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Disease relevance of Selection Bias


High impact information on Selection Bias

  • We cannot exclude some degree of selection bias among the women who received estrogen-replacement therapy [6].
  • Previously reported increased frequencies of these abnormalities in diethylstilbestrol-exposed men may have resulted from selection biases or differences in diethylstilbestrol use, or both [7].
  • IMPLICATIONS: Differences in the pattern of p53 mutation in breast cancers in Midwestern women and in breast cancers in other populations may reflect selection bias or small sample sizes currently available [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Histologic lesions of NASH are unevenly distributed throughout the liver parenchyma; therefore, sampling error of liver biopsy can result in substantial misdiagnosis and staging inaccuracies [9].
  • To avoid selection bias, we confined analysis of total and free protein S levels and thrombotic risk to the patients' relatives [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Selection Bias


Biological context of Selection Bias


Anatomical context of Selection Bias

  • Testosterone level as a potential selection bias for semen donors in assessing population fertility [18].
  • The result are consistent with current theories of the role of the basal ganglia in cognition, and suggest specific impairments in response selection mechanisms in HD, in particular, in overcoming selection biases based on prior reinforcement [19].
  • Because the monkey studies are not hampered by selection bias, the data are supportive of the tentative conclusions from epidemiological studies indicating that the association between postmenopausal estrogen use and reduced coronary artery atherosclerosis is real [20].
  • Failure to consider such a stable rosette structure would result in sampling biases when purifying thymic B cell populations and could also contribute to some of the more unusual phenotypic findings such as the expression of CD2 [21].
  • Because these results are based on examination of feces or cytologic specimens with an inherent sampling bias, it would be ideal to have autopsy data on the complete tissue evaluation of major organ systems of patients who had antemortem E intestinalis infection treated with albendazole [22].

Associations of Selection Bias with chemical compounds


Gene context of Selection Bias

  • Thus, there were significantly more specimens converting from PCNA-positive to PCNA-negative after preoperative radiation than would be expected solely on the basis of sampling errors (P = 0.004) [28].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Publication and selection biases make existing studies of APOE and stroke unreliable [29].
  • The risks (penetrance) of breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are high, but it is likely that estimates based on selected large multicase families are inflated by selection bias [30].
  • Heterogeneity of 67LR expression and biopsy sampling errors most likely represented the main reasons for discordant results between biopsy and RP specimens [31].
  • Wrong interpretation of the results for ER and PR status in cytology was a far more frequent cause of clinically relevant discrepancies than sampling errors [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Selection Bias


  1. Ki-ras mutations in adenomas: a characteristic of cancer-bearing colorectal mucosa. Morris, R.G., Curtis, L.J., Romanowski, P., Hardcastle, J.D., Jenkins, D.A., Robinson, M., Wyllie, A.H., Bird, C.C. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Occurrence of gonadoblastoma in females with Turner syndrome and Y chromosome material: a population study. Gravholt, C.H., Fedder, J., Naeraa, R.W., Müller, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Progress in the management and outcome of small-cell lung cancer in a French region from 1981 to 1994. Lebitasy, M.P., Hédelin, G., Purohit, A., Moreau, L., Klinzig, F., Quoix, E. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Variable histological expression of dystrophinopathy in two females. Doriguzzi, C., Palmucci, L., Mongini, T., Chiadò-Piat, L., Saggiorato, C., Ugo, I., Hoffman, E.P. Acta Neuropathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Postmarketing study of the use of flunarizine in vestibular vertigo and in migraine. Verspeelt, J., De Locht, P., Amery, W.K. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Hip fracture and the use of estrogens in postmenopausal women. The Framingham Study. Kiel, D.P., Felson, D.T., Anderson, J.J., Wilson, P.W., Moskowitz, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Males exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Leary, F.J., Resseguie, L.J., Kurland, L.T., O'Brien, P.C., Emslander, R.F., Noller, K.L. JAMA (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Pattern of p53 gene mutations in breast cancers of women of the midwestern United States. Sommer, S.S., Cunningham, J., McGovern, R.M., Saitoh, S., Schroeder, J.J., Wold, L.E., Kovach, J.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Sampling variability of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Ratziu, V., Charlotte, F., Heurtier, A., Gombert, S., Giral, P., Bruckert, E., Grimaldi, A., Capron, F., Poynard, T. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic analysis, phenotypic diagnosis, and risk of venous thrombosis in families with inherited deficiencies of protein S. Makris, M., Leach, M., Beauchamp, N.J., Daly, M.E., Cooper, P.C., Hampton, K.K., Bayliss, P., Peake, I.R., Miller, G.J., Preston, F.E. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Breast cancer risk in the WHI study: the problem of obesity. Kuhl, H. Maturitas. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Leukoplakia and carcinoma in situ synchronously associated with invasive oral/oropharyngeal carcinoma in Rochester, Minn., 1935-1984. Bouquot, J.E., Weiland, L.H., Kurland, L.T. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Subhourly variability of circulating third trimester maternal steroid concentrations as a source of sampling error. Buster, J.E., Meis, P.J., Hobel, C.J., Marshall, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcium channel blockade and cardiovascular prognosis in the European trial on isolated systolic hypertension. Staessen, J.A., Thijs, L., Fagard, R.H., Birkenhäger, W.H., Arabidze, G., Babeanu, S., Gil-Extremera, B., Bulpitt, C.J., Davidson, C., de Leeuw, P.W., Efstratopoulos, A.D., Fletcher, A.E., Fogari, R., Jääskivi, M., Kawecka-Jaszcz, K., Nachev, C., Petrie, J.C., Seux, M.L., Tuomilehto, J., Webster, J., Yodfat, Y. Hypertension (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Polymorphic DNA haplotypes at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase locus and their relationship with phenylketonuria. Chakraborty, R., Lidsky, A.S., Daiger, S.P., Güttler, F., Sullivan, S., Dilella, A.G., Woo, S.L. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of resistive training on lipoprotein-lipid profiles: a comparison to aerobic exercise training. Hurley, B.F. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Estimation of the relative risk of developing clinical scrapie: the role of prion protein (PrP) genotype and selection bias. Tongue, S.C., Pfeiffer, D.U., Warner, R., Elliott, H., Del Rio Vilas, V. Vet. Rec. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Testosterone level as a potential selection bias for semen donors in assessing population fertility. Mullard, A., Wirth, J.J., Karmaus, W., Paneth, N. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Discrimination, reversal, and shift learning in Huntington's disease: mechanisms of impaired response selection. Lawrence, A.D., Sahakian, B.J., Rogers, R.D., Hodge, J.R., Robbins, T.W. Neuropsychologia. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The nonhuman primate model of the relationship between gonadal steroids and coronary heart disease. Clarkson, T.B., Hughes, C.L., Klein, K.P. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of the stability of human and murine thymic B cell/thymocyte rosettes and investigation of unusual immunophenotypic findings. Howe, C.J., Isaacson, P.G., Spencer, J. Cell. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Autopsy verification of Encephalitozoon intestinalis (microsporidiosis) eradication following albendazole therapy. Joste, N.E., Rich, J.D., Busam, K.J., Schwartz, D.A. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Docetaxel and continuous-infusion fluorouracil versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil for advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: a randomized phase II study. Thuss-Patience, P.C., Kretzschmar, A., Repp, M., Kingreen, D., Hennesser, D., Micheel, S., Pink, D., Scholz, C., Dörken, B., Reichardt, P. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Urea breath tests in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Logan, R.P. Gut (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg65-His) not associated with imparied glucose tolerance: the contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity. Röder, M.E., Vissing, H., Nauck, M.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Adrenocortical secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy women: highly variable response to adrenocorticotropin. Azziz, R., Fox, L.M., Zacur, H.A., Parker, C.R., Boots, L.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Polymorphisms of NAT2 in relation to sulphasalazine-induced agranulocytosis. Wadelius, M., Stjernberg, E., Wiholm, B.E., Rane, A. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Carcinoma of the rectum. Possible cellular predictors of metastatic potential and response to radiation therapy. Desai, G.R., Myerson, R.J., Higashikubo, R., Birnbaum, E., Fleshman, J., Fry, R., Kodner, I., Kucik, N., Lacey, D., Ribeiro, M. Dis. Colon Rectum (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Does apolipoprotein E genotype influence the risk of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage? Systematic review and meta-analyses of 31 studies among 5961 cases and 17,965 controls. Sudlow, C., Martínez González, N.A., Kim, J., Clark, C. Stroke (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Public health aspects of breast cancer gene testing in Canada. Part 1: risks and interventions. Elwood, J.M. Chronic diseases in Canada. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Detection of the 67-kD laminin receptor in prostate cancer biopsies as a predictor of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Waltregny, D., de Leval, L., Coppens, L., Youssef, E., de Leval, J., Castronovo, V. Eur. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptor status in breast carcinoma: comparison of immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Tafjord, S., Bøhler, P.J., Risberg, B., Torlakovic, E. Diagn. Cytopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Cardiac iron deposition in idiopathic hemochromatosis: histologic and analytic assessment of 14 hearts from autopsy. Olson, L.J., Edwards, W.D., McCall, J.T., Ilstrup, D.M., Gersh, B.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Classifications of epileptic syndromes: advantages and limitations for evaluation of childhood epileptic syndromes in clinical practice. Viani, F., Beghi, E., Atza, M.G., Gulotta, M.P. Epilepsia (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Trends in intraaortic balloon counterpulsation complications and outcomes in cardiac surgery. Christenson, J.T., Cohen, M., Ferguson, J.J., Freedman, R.J., Miller, M.F., Ohman, E.M., Reddy, R.C., Stone, G.W., Urban, P.M. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Relative expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) transcripts in astrocytic gliomas. Kotoula, V., Barbanis, S., Nikolakaki, E., Koufoyannis, D., Papadimitriou, C.S., Karkavelas, G. Acta Neuropathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. A health facility based case-control study of effectiveness of insecticide treated nets: potential for selection bias due to pre-treatment with chloroquine. Webster, J., Chandramohan, D., Freeman, T., Greenwood, B., Kamawal, A.U., Rahim, F., Rowland, M. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2003) [Pubmed]
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