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Chemical Compound Review

DEXTRAN     (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5- tetrahydroxy-6-[(2S...

Synonyms: AC1NUSPK, CHEMBL1697742, CHEBI:27649, CPD-13351, FT-0624533, ...
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Disease relevance of DEXTRAN

  • The changes in factor VIII, activated partial thromboplastin time, and TEG measurements indicate that HES and DEX may attenuate the hypercoagulability related to surgery [1].
  • For animals in the QuilA and Dex groups, mean pH of feces throughout the period of experiment were significantly higher and numbers of S bovis and Lactobacillus spp in ruminal fluid on day 47 were significantly lower than values for control cattle [2].
  • Two model antigens were used to characterize the response: the thymus-independent (TI) antigen native dextran B512 (Dx), and the thymus-dependent (TD) antigen heat shock protein (HSP65) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis [3].
  • The dex70 was also effective in normoxic slices (400 microm) after hypoosmotic stress altered the ECS to mimic ischemia [4].
  • CMDBS and CMDB (1 microM) strongly inhibited HIV-1 infection of primary macrophages and primary CD4+ lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic and T lymphocyte-tropic strains, respectively, while D or CMD had more limited effects on M-tropic infection of primary macrophages and exert no inhibitory effect on M- or T-tropic infection of primary lymphocytes [5].
  • Adoptive transfer of BM-DCs exacerbated dextran sulfate sodium colitis while ablation of DCs attenuated the colitis [6].

Psychiatry related information on DEXTRAN

  • Previously we have characterized an idiotype (Id) that accounts for half of all specific anti-dextran B512 (Dex) antibodies in C57BL/6 mice [7].

High impact information on DEXTRAN

  • This finding was confirmed by the finding that a high proportion of antidextran hybridoma cell lines derived from C.B20 bone marrow cells produced lambda-bearing alpha(1----3) DEX-specific antibodies that were IdX+ [8].
  • Surprisingly, although C.B20 mice (Ighb) have a low frequency of lambda-bearing alpha(1----3) DEX-specific B cells in their mature primary splenic population, the frequency of precursor cells of this clonotype in their sIg- bone marrow cell population is equivalent to that of BALB/c sIg- cells [8].
  • The intralysosomal pH of control and D-treated macrophages was 4.76 (+/-0.06) and 4.68 (+/-0.02), respectively [9].
  • The uptake, intravacuolar distribution, and intralysosomal digestion of fluid-phase pinocytic markers were unaltered in lysosomes containing either D or DS [10].
  • The results with the Beta isomer consistently indicated that the membranes of DS lysosomes were more rigid than the D samples [9].

Biological context of DEXTRAN

  • BALB/c mice produce the same Id in normal, pre-immune sera but fail to use it in antibody responses to Dex, although Id+ anti-Dex antibodies can be induced in this strain by anti-Id immunization [7].
  • Providing small isomaltosaccharide ligands to compete with this dextran indicated that the binding site maximally accommodated isomaltosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 8 [11].
  • Plasma volume recovered to 95% of control after H, 105% of control after HD, but only to 80% after D; however, the response to H was transient [12].
  • Arterial pressure recovered to near control levels in all groups; consequently, systemic vascular resistance was reduced after H and HD, but increased after D [12].
  • It was found that the modification of the surface with DEX significantly reduced the cytotoxicity towards J774 macrophages: the IC50 was increased from 10 to 600 microg/ml [13].

Anatomical context of DEXTRAN

  • Previous studies have shown that dextran B1355 (DEX)- and (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP)-coupled antigens triggered, respectively, BALB/c and C57BL/6 (B6) lymphocytes in which the V lambda 1 gene and a specific VH gene (VHDEX and VHNPb) have functionally rearranged [14].
  • Since athymic mice lack T cells but nonetheless develop antibodies to polysaccharide antigens such as dextran (DEX), we used athymic mice to study the role of T lymphocytes in the induction of this form of GN, independent of the role of T cells in antibody synthesis [15].
  • To analyze the effect of age in both B and T cell compartments of the immune system, we have studied the anti-dextran (Dx) B512 humoral immune response in aged C57BL/6 mice [16].
  • Then, the results are compared with erythrocytes suspended in dextran (Dx) 70 and Dx 500 [17].
  • These data suggest that interstitial fluid space remains contracted during the first hour after HS, HSD, and Dex resuscitation compared with LR resuscitation, even though the restoration of plasma volume, MAP, and cardiac output is greatest with the Dex regimen [18].

Associations of DEXTRAN with other chemical compounds

  • Excluded volumes (in cubic centimeters per molecule) calculated from the "second virial coefficients" are: BSA, 0.97 X 10(-18); D110, 3.04 X 10(-18); CHS, 14.3 X 10(-18); BSA-D110, 6.8 X 10(-18); BSA-CHS, 7.8 X 10(-18) [19].
  • Analysis of these reaction products by thin-layer chromatography revealed the expected isomaltosaccharide products yielded by the recombinant-specified enzyme but was unable to resolve the larger polysaccharide products of the native enzyme [20].
  • Forty adult patients, ASA physical status 1-3, scheduled for ANH during radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of four replacement fluid groups: (a) Ringer's lactate, (b) 5% albumin, (c) 6% dextran 70 (DEX), or (d) 6% hetastarch (HES) [1].
  • The present work reports the effect of conjugation of the anticarcinogenic and antitumor soybean Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) with amphiphilic block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (PEO-PPO) as well as with monoclonal antibody via clinical dextran (D) on tumor-targeted delivery of BBI [21].

Gene context of DEXTRAN

  • Both ChAT and AChE activities were influenced following KLH immunization, while DEX had only transient effects on ChAT [22].
  • More importantly, MRL mice, unlike other H-2k, Igh.Ca strains, were unresponsive to Dex in CFA or saline [23].
  • Zeta potential measurements confirmed the presence of a DEX coating [24].
  • We first studied the influence of the DEX coating on the phagocytosis of the nanoparticles by human TPH-1 and J774 murine macrophage-like cell lines [13].
  • The Dx and BSA cross-reactive antibodies were produced in an apparently random fashion as judged by the use of kappa and lambda light chains and the use of V(H) J558 subfamily genes [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DEXTRAN

  • Thermal denaturation (UV-Tm) and circular dichroism experiments revealed that the graft copolymer with the higher degree of grafting of long Dex chains significantly increased the thermal stability of triplex structure of poly(dA) [26].
  • The ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) PMN count with PND (8+/-2 x 10(5)/mL), was not different from its baseline (P = 0.131), but the counts with D (16+/-3) and LR (17+/-4) were both higher than their baselines (P = 0.0184 and 0.0431) [27].
  • MAP, cardiac output, and plasma volume were most quickly restored with LR and Dex resuscitation (MAP = 106 and 118 mm Hg) compared to HS and HSD (MAP = 98 and 92 mm Hg) [18].
  • Polymerase chain reaction analysis with cytokine-specific primers revealed induction of interleukin-4 (lL-4) in KLH-treated lacrimal glands, but not in DEX or unimmunized tissues [22].
  • After induction of general anaesthesia and pulmonary artery catheterization, a precalculated amount of autologous blood was withdrawn while the patient's autologous blood was simultaneously replaced by either HES or DEX [28].


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  2. Effects of various adjuvants on efficacy of a vaccine against Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus spp in cattle. Shu, Q., Hillard, M.A., Bindon, B.M., Duan, E., Xu, Y., Bird, S.H., Rowe, J.B., Oddy, V.H., Gill, H.S. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The humoral response in TCR alpha-/- mice. Can gammadelta-T cells support the humoral immune response? Lindroth, K., Troye-Blomberg, M., Singh, M., Dieli, F., Ivanyi, J., Fernández, C. Scand. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Dead-space microdomains hinder extracellular diffusion in rat neocortex during ischemia. Hrabetová, S., Hrabe, J., Nicholson, C. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiviral activity of derivatized dextrans on HIV-1 infection of primary macrophages and blood lymphocytes. Seddiki, N., Mbemba, E., Letourneur, D., Ylisastigui, L., Benjouad, A., Saffar, L., Gluckman, J.C., Jozefonvicz, J., Gattegno, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of dendritic cells in the development of acute dextran sulfate sodium colitis. Berndt, B.E., Zhang, M., Chen, G.H., Huffnagle, G.B., Kao, J.Y. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Inverse correlation between the utilization of an idiotype in specific immune responses and its representation in pre-immune "natural" antibodies. Portnoi, D., Lundkvist, I., Coutinho, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Strain-specific silencing of a predominant antidextran clonotype family. Froscher, B.G., Klinman, N.R. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Intralysosomal accumulation of polyanions. II. Polyanion internalization and its influence on lysosomal pH and membrane fluidity. Kielian, M.C., Cohn, Z.A. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Intralysosomal accumulation of polyanions. I. Fusion of pinocytic and phagocytic vacuoles with secondary lysosomes. Kielian, M.C., Steinman, R.M., Cohn, Z.A. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization by affinity electrophoresis of an alpha-1,6-glucan-binding protein from Streptococcus sobrinus. Landale, E.C., McCabe, M.M. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypertonic and hyperoncotic resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock in dogs: a comparative study. Velasco, I.T., Rocha e Silva, M., Oliveira, M.A., Oliveira, M.A., Silva, R.I. Crit. Care Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of polysaccharide coating on the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems. Lemarchand, C., Gref, R., Passirani, C., Garcion, E., Petri, B., Müller, R., Costantini, D., Couvreur, P. Biomaterials (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of V lambda gene diversity on generation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. Ju, S.T., Siebenlist, U., Kelly, K. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Development of immune-complex glomerulonephritis in athymic mice: T cells are not required for the genesis of glomerular injury. Bagheri, N., Pepple, D.A., Hassan, M.O., Harding, C.V., Emancipator, S.N. Lab. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. The response in old mice: positive and negative immune memory after priming in early age. Sánchez, M., Lindroth, K., Sverremark, E., González Fernández, A., Fernández, C. Int. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. A new laser photometric technique for the measurement of erythrocyte aggregation and sedimentation kinetics. Muralidharan, E., Tateishi, N., Maeda, N. Biorheology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Hemodynamic, plasma volume, and prenodal skin lymph responses to varied resuscitation regimens. Saxe, J.M., Dombi, G.W., Lucas, W.F., Ledgerwood, A.M., Lucas, C.E. The Journal of trauma. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Interpretation of osmotic pressure in solutions of one and two nondiffusible components. Shaw, M. Biophys. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular cloning of the extracellular endodextranase of Streptococcus salivarius. Lawman, P., Bleiweis, A.S. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Potential of block copolymer- and immuno-conjugates for tumor-targeted delivery of Bowman-Birk soybean proteinase inhibitor. Gladysheva, I.P., Polekhina, O.V., Karmakova, T.A., Nemtsova, E.R., Yakubovskaya, R.I., Shen, W.C., Kennedy, A.R., Larionova, N.I. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of T-lymphocyte-dependent and -independent immunity on cholinergic enzyme activity in mouse lacrimal gland. Sinha, K., Dannelly, H.K., Ghosh, S.K. Exp. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Anti-immunoglobulin antibodies. V. Age-dependent variation of clones stimulated by polysaccharide TI-2 antigens in 129 and MRL mice spontaneously producing anti-gamma-globulin antibodies. Manheimer, A.J., Victor-Kobrin, C., Stein, K.E., Bona, C.A. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Novel polyester-polysaccharide nanoparticles. Lemarchand, C., Couvreur, P., Besnard, M., Costantini, D., Gref, R. Pharm. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Polyreactive binding of antibodies generated by polyclonal B cell activation. I. Polyreactivity could be caused by differential glycosylation of immunoglobulins. Fernández, C., Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E., Abedi-Valugerdi, M., Sverremark, E., Cortes, V. Scand. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Comb-type copolymer: stabilization of triplex DNA and possible application in antigene strategy. Ferdous, A., Watanabe, H., Akaike, T., Maruyama, A. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  28. Global tissue oxygenation during normovolaemic haemodilution in young children. Aly Hassan, A., Lochbuehler, H., Frey, L., Messmer, K. Paediatric anaesthesia. (1997) [Pubmed]
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