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Gene Review

Chat  -  choline acetyltransferase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: B230380D24Rik, CHOACTase, ChAT, Choline O-acetyltransferase, Choline acetylase
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Disease relevance of Chat


Psychiatry related information on Chat


High impact information on Chat


Chemical compound and disease context of Chat


Biological context of Chat

  • A second QTL was detected on chromosome 14 (peak LOD = 6.9), which was located more proximally and included the Chat locus [20].
  • Two of the genes containing variable length CAG repeats, seven in absentia homologue 1b (Sinh1b), and choline acetyl transferase (Chat), which had not previously been mapped in the mouse genome, were mapped by linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross [21].
  • Sinh1b maps very distally on the X chromosome, and Chat maps to chromosome 14 [21].
  • This suggests that an alteration in ChAT ir cell migration which leads to a redistribution of cholinergic neurons in subcortical forebrain regions occurs in HR mice [22].
  • These results demonstrate that neurotrophins stimulate the synthesis of ChAT and TH of the neural stem cells prior to neuronal differentiation, and suggest that neurotrophins may play roles in the commitment to neuronal cells and choice of specific neurotransmitter phenotypes in early stages of neurogenesis [23].

Anatomical context of Chat


Associations of Chat with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Chat


Co-localisations of Chat


Regulatory relationships of Chat


Other interactions of Chat


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chat


  1. Choline acetyltransferase activity at different ages in brain of Ts65Dn mice, an animal model for Down's syndrome and related neurodegenerative diseases. Contestabile, A., Fila, T., Bartesaghi, R., Contestabile, A., Ciani, E. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Catecholaminergic properties of cholinergic neurons and synapses in adult rat ciliary ganglion. Landis, S.C., Jackson, P.C., Fredieu, J.R., Thibault, J. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuropeptide immunoreactivity and choline acetyltransferase activity in the mouse urinary bladder following inoculation with Semliki Forest Virus. Moss, H.E., Tansey, E.M., Milner, P., Lincoln, J., Burnstock, G. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus infection on brain choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities. Bonilla, E., Hernández, H., Salazar, M., Rangel, P. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase activity in human neuroblastoma. Correlations with clinical features. Yokomori, K., Tsuchida, Y., Saito, S. Cancer (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetically-determined responses of central cholinergic markers: the effects of ethanol on inbred strains of mice. Hashemzadeh-Gargari, H., Mandel, P. Neurotoxicology (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Administration of phosphatidylcholine increases brain acetylcholine concentration and improves memory in mice with dementia. Chung, S.Y., Moriyama, T., Uezu, E., Uezu, K., Hirata, R., Yohena, N., Masuda, Y., Kokubu, T., Yamamoto, S. J. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Regional acetylcholine turnover rates in the brains of three inbred strains of mice: correlation with some interstrain behavioural differences. Durkin, T., Ayad, G., Ebel, A., Mandel, P. Brain Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen treatment on learning and hippocampal neurotransmitters in mice. Heikkinen, T., Puoliväli, J., Liu, L., Rissanen, A., Tanila, H. Hormones and behavior. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Basal lamina glycoproteins are produced by neuroblastoma cells. Alitalo, K., Kurkinen, M., Vaheri, A., Virtanen, I., Rohde, H., Timpl, R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Cholinergic input is required during embryonic development to mediate proper assembly of spinal locomotor circuits. Myers, C.P., Lewcock, J.W., Hanson, M.G., Gosgnach, S., Aimone, J.B., Gage, F.H., Lee, K.F., Landmesser, L.T., Pfaff, S.L. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase. Misgeld, T., Burgess, R.W., Lewis, R.M., Cunningham, J.M., Lichtman, J.W., Sanes, J.R. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Interleukin 3 as a trophic factor for central cholinergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Kamegai, M., Niijima, K., Kunishita, T., Nishizawa, M., Ogawa, M., Araki, M., Ueki, A., Konishi, Y., Tabira, T. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of neurons that express stem cell factor in the mouse small intestine. Young, H.M., Torihashi, S., Ciampoli, D., Sanders, K.M. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Nerve growth factor and acetyl-L-carnitine evoked shifts in acetyl-CoA and cholinergic SN56 cell vulnerability to neurotoxic inputs. Szutowicz, A., Bielarczyk, H., Gul, S., Zieliński, P., Pawełczyk, T., Tomaszewicz, M. J. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of 4-methylpiperidine analogs of hemicholinium-3. Tedford, C.E., Reed, D., Bhattacharyya, B., Bhalla, P., Cannon, J.G., Long, J.P. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential neurochemical effects of chronic exposure of cerebral cortical cell culture to valproic acid, diazepam, or ethosuximide. Sher, P.K., Neale, E.A., Graubard, B.I., Habig, W.H., Fitzgerald, S.C., Nelson, P.G. Pediatric neurology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential toxicity of chronic exposure to phenytoin, phenobarbital, or carbamazepine in cerebral cortical cell cultures. Neale, E.A., Sher, P.K., Graubard, B.I., Habig, W.H., Fitzgerald, S.C., Nelson, P.G. Pediatric neurology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of nefiracetam, DM-9384 on amnesia and decrease in choline acetyltransferase activity induced by cycloheximide. Shiotani, T., Tohyama, K., Murase, K., Ishihara, S., Kameyama, T., Yamasaki, T., Hatanaka, S., Kojima, H., Takasu, Y., Nabeshima, T. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci for haloperidol-induced catalepsy on mouse chromosome 14. Rasmussen, E., Cipp, L., Hitzemann, R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis of CAG trinucleotide repeats from mouse cDNA sequences. Abbott, C., Chambers, D. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Selective disarrangement of the rostral telencephalic cholinergic system in heterozygous reeler mice. Sigala, S., Zoli, M., Palazzolo, F., Faccoli, S., Zanardi, A., Mercuri, N.B., Spano, P. Neuroscience (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurotrophins facilitate synthesis of choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase in cultured mouse neural stem cells independently of their neuronal differentiation. Ito, H., Nomoto, H., Furukawa, Y., Furukawa, S. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Age and strain comparisons of neurotransmitter synthetic enzyme activities in the mouse. Waller, S.B., Ingram, D.K., Reynolds, M.A., London, E.D. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Increase of choline acetyltransferase by colchicine in primary cell cultures of spinal cord. Ishida, I., Deguchi, T. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Cholinergic differentiation occurs early in mouse sympathetic neurons and requires Phox2b. Huber, K., Ernsberger, U. Gene Expr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Choline transporter 1 maintains cholinergic function in choline acetyltransferase haploinsufficiency. Brandon, E.P., Mellott, T., Pizzo, D.P., Coufal, N., D'Amour, K.A., Gobeske, K., Lortie, M., López-Coviella, I., Berse, B., Thal, L.J., Gage, F.H., Blusztajn, J.K. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Alterations in acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase activities and neuropeptide levels in the ventral spinal cord of the Wobbler mouse during inherited motoneuron disease. Yung, K.K., Tang, F., Vacca-Galloway, L.L. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Coordinated up-regulation of choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter gene expression by the retinoic acid receptor alpha, cAMP, and leukemia inhibitory factor/ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling pathways in a murine septal cell line. Berse, B., Blusztajn, J.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of neurotransmitter phenotype during neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells. Sharma, S., Notter, M.F. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Postnatal maturation of brain cholinergic systems in the precocial murid Acomys cahirinus: comparison with the altricial rat. Pintor, A., Alleva, E., Michalek, H. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Galanin regulates the postnatal survival of a subset of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. O'Meara, G., Coumis, U., Ma, S.Y., Kehr, J., Mahoney, S., Bacon, A., Allen, S.J., Holmes, F., Kahl, U., Wang, F.H., Kearns, I.R., Ove-Ogren, S., Dawbarn, D., Mufson, E.J., Davies, C., Dawson, G., Wynick, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase negatively modulates ciliary neurotrophic factor-activated choline acetyltransferase gene expression. Mellott, T., Lopez-Coviella, I., Blusztajn, J.K., Berse, B. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of depolarizing agents on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in primary cell cultures of spinal cord. Ishida, I., Deguchi, T. J. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Cholinergic properties of neurons differentiated from an embryonal carcinoma cell-line (P19). Parnas, D., Linial, M. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. p75NGFR mediates death of cholinergic neurons during postnatal development of the neostriatum in mice. Van der Zee, C.E., Hagg, T. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of choline acetyltransferase activity in a co-culture of spinal cord and skeletal muscle cells is inhibited by myogenic differentiation inhibitors. Kengaku, M., Kawashima, S., Nakane, M. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. c-ret regulates cholinergic properties in mouse sympathetic neurons: evidence from mutant mice. Burau, K., Stenull, I., Huber, K., Misawa, H., Berse, B., Unsicker, K., Ernsberger, U. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Development of cholinergic markers in mouse forebrain. I. Choline acetyltransferase enzyme activity and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. Höhmann, C.F., Ebner, F.F. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  40. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and developing mammalian motoneurons: regulation of programmed cell death among motoneuron subtypes. Oppenheim, R.W., Houenou, L.J., Parsadanian, A.S., Prevette, D., Snider, W.D., Shen, L. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Expression of PRiMA in the mouse brain: membrane anchoring and accumulation of 'tailed' acetylcholinesterase. Perrier, N.A., Khérif, S., Perrier, A.L., Dumas, S., Mallet, J., Massoulié, J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  42. Gene expression of mouse choline acetyltransferase. Alternative splicing and identification of a highly active promoter region. Misawa, H., Ishii, K., Deguchi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Genetic variation in the morphology of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic system in mice. I. Cholinergic and GABAergic markers. Schwegler, H., Boldyreva, M., Pyrlik-Göhlmann, M., Linke, R., Wu, J., Zilles, K. Hippocampus. (1996) [Pubmed]
  44. Cholinergic projections from the parabigeminal nucleus (Ch8) to the superior colliculus in the mouse: a combined analysis of horseradish peroxidase transport and choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry. Mufson, E.J., Martin, T.L., Mash, D.C., Wainer, B.H., Mesulam, M.M. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  45. Modulation of acetylcholinesterase and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in choline acetyltransferase- transfected neuroblastoma clones. De Jaco, A., Ajmone-Cat, M.A., Baldelli, P., Carbone, E., Augusti-Tocco, G., Biagioni, S. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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