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Chemical Compound Review

Silanol     hydroxysilicon

Synonyms: silyl ethers, CHEBI:47988, AC1O3FWH, V1516, 14475-38-8, ...
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Disease relevance of hydroxysilicon

  • Specific structures involving water and silanol groups were proposed for various stages of thermal treatment, which included dehydration, dehydroxylation, and subsequent rehydration [1].
  • The relationship between the concentration of surface silanol groups on the silica surface and the amount of catalase required to decrease hemolysis may also provide a method for testing potential fibrogenicity of respirable dusts [2].
  • The reduction of the metaphyseal bone resorption and the increased bone formation induced by silanol resulted in a slight improvement of the trabecular bone volume (+14%) compared with controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[3]
  • Impact of silanol surface density on the toxicity of silica aerosols measured by erythrocyte haemolysis [4].

Psychiatry related information on hydroxysilicon

  • The metal loading mainly depended on the surface silanol group population, size and shape of metal-coordinated ligand, and reaction time as shown for Zn contents in the range of 4.2 to 10.6 wt% [5].

High impact information on hydroxysilicon

  • The treatment with a water/DMSO mixture produced a unique crystalline 2-D silicate framework with geminal silanol groups, whereas a water/acetone mixture induced hydrolysis and subsequent condensation between adjacent layers to form a new 3-D silicate framework [6].
  • At pH above 7.5, a cathodic EOF was observed due to the full ionization of silanol group and the suppression in the ionization of amino group [7].
  • The treatment of capillaries with a silanol-group modified PVAL (PVAL-Si) has been found to give good coating effects for improving the resolution of DNA CE and for reducing the EOF [8].
  • The weakly basic tBuCQN particles have positive zeta-potentials at pH lower than about 7.5, but exhibit a negative zeta-potential above this pH, indicating the dominating effect of residual silanol groups at the silica surface [9].
  • Besides studying the EOF characteristics with different organic solvents and water, gas chromatography (GC) measurements were carried out to probe the silanol reduction via ether retention and the surface hydrophobicity by retention of nonane [10].

Biological context of hydroxysilicon

  • The efficiencies and asymmetry factors achieved for the group of beta-blockers in the Kromasil C(18) column improve when the cationic modifiers are added to the aqueous-organic mobile phase as competing additives for the silanol active sites [11].
  • A photografting technique to produce functional groups of silanol able to induce apatite nucleation was attempted on polyethylene substrate for biomimetic formation of bone-mineral-like apatite layer on its surface [12].
  • It is less likely that efficiency improvements are due to the speeding up of the kinetics of silanol ion exchange, at least in the temperature range studied here [13].
  • In case of 30-nm SNPs, a large amount of isolated silanol was observed [14].
  • A chitosan membrane modified with silanol groups and calcium ions on its surface and in its structure, respectively, was newly developed and evaluated for the potential application as a bioactive-guided bone-regeneration membrane [15].

Anatomical context of hydroxysilicon

  • These results indicate that the silanol content, and possibly the degree of hydration of the fiber surface, is important for a fiber to stick to a cell surface [16].
  • Although the silanol-modified silicones thus prepared formed no apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma within 21 d, they formed a bone-like apatite layer in situ on their surfaces in a solution (1.5 SBF) with ion concentrations 1.5 times the SBF within 7 d [17].
  • The membranes of the bubbles were probably composed of a bilayer of the dendron molecules bound through the peripheral silanol groups [18].
  • Treatment of OVX rats with silanol decreased the osteoclast surface by 31% and the number of osteoclasts by 20% [3].
  • The mineral apposition rate, the bone formation rate, and the osteoblast surface at the tibia metaphyseal area were increased by 30% at the higher dose of silanol compared with OVX rats [3].

Associations of hydroxysilicon with other chemical compounds

  • The nearest-neighbor distance between CTAB aggregates varies inversely with buffer pH and becomes constant at the point when the silanol groups are fully ionized [19].
  • For potential biomedical use, we described the silated-HPMC synthesis, the gel behavior after steam sterilization and the parameters of the silanol condensation i.e. pH, silane percentage and temperature [20].
  • The best result (91% ee) was achieved in the addition to p-chlorobenzaldehyde with organosilanol 2b, which has a tert-butyl substituent on the oxazoline ring and an isopropyl group on the silanol fragment [21].
  • Residual surface silanol groups are found to provide hydrogen bonding sites that lead to the formation of substrate bound water and methanol clusters, including bridging clusters that penetrate from the solvent/chain interfacial region all the way to the silica surface [22].
  • This method uses a 40-min linear gradient of 88-100% methanol, containing ammonium hydroxide as silanol suppressing agent, and is suitable for metabolic studies using both UV detection at 205 nm and radioactivity flow detection [23].

Gene context of hydroxysilicon

  • Existing methods for the analysis of histone H1 by capillary electrophoresis (CE) employ acidic buffers (pH <3.0) to suppress silanol ionization and minimize the loss of these extremely basic proteins by adsorption to capillary walls [24].
  • The adsorption is heterogeneous, due to various clusters of silanol groups and to charge transfer (CT) sites [25].
  • The obtained results have shown that there is no direct relationship between silanol activity (Galushko test) and electroosmotic mobility for C18 phases [26].
  • The PFPP stationary phase exhibits a substantial increase in effects of ionized surface silanol groups compared to the alkyl phase despite similar surface coverage [27].
  • In this work, phytic acid was employed as a run buffer additive to eliminate the interaction of SP and its cationic N-terminus metabolites with ionized silanol groups [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of hydroxysilicon

  • Comparison of the acidity of residual silanol groups in several liquid chromatography columns [29].
  • The immobilization of DS was performed with a good yield on a silica previously coated with polysaccharides in order to neutralize the negatively charged silanol groups [30].
  • 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provided conclusive evidence that the silanol groups located on the external surface of NaZSM-5 were functionalized through reaction with the organosilanes [31].
  • Also, silanol repolymerization is necessary for rapid crystallization of HCAp [32].
  • Chemical force titrations-measurements of the adhesive interaction between a pair of suitably chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and sample surfaces as a function of pH-have been carried out for various combinations of silanol, amine, carboxylic acid, and sulfonic acid functional groups on both tip and sample [33].


  1. Solid-state NMR study of MCM-41-type mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Trébosc, J., Wiench, J.W., Huh, S., Lin, V.S., Pruski, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence of an oxidative mechanism for the hemolytic activity of silica particles. Razzaboni, B.L., Bolsaitis, P. Environ. Health Perspect. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Short-term effects of organic silicon on trabecular bone in mature ovariectomized rats. Hott, M., de Pollak, C., Modrowski, D., Marie, P.J. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Impact of silanol surface density on the toxicity of silica aerosols measured by erythrocyte haemolysis. Murashov, V., Harper, M., Demchuk, E. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Organometallic chemistry on periodic mesoporous organosilicas: generation of surface-confined zinc and yttrium centres. Liang, Y., Anwander, R. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular manipulation of two- and three-dimensional silica nanostructures by alkoxysilylation of a layered silicate octosilicate and subsequent hydrolysis of alkoxy groups. Mochizuki, D., Shimojima, A., Imagawa, T., Kuroda, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange mixed-mode silica-based monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography. Ding, G., Da, Z., Yuan, R., Bao, J.J. Electrophoresis (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. DNA capillary electrophoresis using poly(vinyl alcohol). I. Inner capillary coating. Moritani, T., Yoon, K., Rafailovich, M., Chu, B. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Estimation and comparison of zeta-potentials of silica-based anion-exchange type porous particles for capillary electrochromatography from electrophoretic and electroosmotic mobility. Sánchez Muñoz, O.L., Hernández, E.P., Lämmerhofer, M., Lindner, W., Kenndler, E. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Control of electroosmotic flow in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis by polymer capillary coatings. Steiner, F., Hassel, M. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Ionic liquids versus triethylamine as mobile phase additives in the analysis of beta-blockers. Ruiz-Angel, M.J., Carda-Broch, S., Berthod, A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Biomimetic apatite formation on polyethylene photografted with vinyltrimethoxysilane and hydrolyzed. Kim, H.M., Uenoyama, M., Kokubo, T., Minoda, M., Miyamoto, T., Nakamura, T. Biomaterials (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Rationalisation of unusual changes in efficiency and retention with temperature shown for bases in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography at intermediate pH. Buckenmaier, S.M., McCalley, D.V., Euerby, M.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of particle size on surface modification of silica nanoparticles by using silane coupling agents and their dispersion stability in methylethylketone. Iijima, M., Tsukada, M., Kamiya, H. Journal of colloid and interface science (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Synergistic effect of silanol group and calcium ion in chitosan membrane on apatite forming ability in simulated body fluid. Rhee, S.H., Lee, S.J., Tanaka, J. Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction of amosite and surface-modified amosite with a V79-4 (Chinese hamster lung) cell line. Sara, E.A., Brown, R.C., Evans, C.E., Hoskins, J.A., Simpson, C.F. Environ. Health Perspect. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Sol-gel modification of silicone to induce apatite-forming ability. Oyane, A., Nakanishi, K., Kim, H.M., Miyaji, F., Kokubo, T., Soga, N., Nakamura, T. Biomaterials (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Atomic force microscopy studies of mesoscopic membranous bubbles on monolayers derived from SiCl3-terminated carbosilane dendrons on mica. Xiao, Z., Cai, C. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of surfactant coatings in capillary electrophoresis by atomic force microscopy. Baryla, N.E., Melanson, J.E., McDermott, M.T., Lucy, C.A. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Synthesis and general properties of silated-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in prospect of biomedical use. Bourges, X., Weiss, P., Daculsi, G., Legeay, G. Advances in colloid and interface science. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Organosilanols as catalysts in asymmetric aryl transfer reactions. Ozçubukçu, S., Schmidt, F., Bolm, C. Org. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Chain conformation and solvent partitioning in reversed-phase liquid chromatography: Monte Carlo simulations for various water/methanol concentrations. Zhang, L., Rafferty, J.L., Siepmann, J.I., Chen, B., Schure, M.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Separation of the molecular species of intact phosphatidylethanolamines and their N-monomethyl and N,N-dimethyl derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C8 column. Lin, J.T., Lew, K.M., Chen, J.M., McKeon, T.A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Capillary electrophoresis of histone H1 variants at neutral pH in dynamically modified fused- silica tubing. Mizzen, C.A., McLachlan, D.R. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Various aspects of the constraints imposed on the photochemistry of systems in porous silica. Thomas, J.K., Ellison, E.H. Advances in colloid and interface science. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Study of electroosmotic flow in packed capillary columns. Szumski, M., Buszewski, B. Journal of chromatography. A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Solute attributes and molecular interactions contributing to "U-shape" retention on a fluorinated high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase. Bell, D.S., Jones, A.D. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Complete capillary electrophoretic separation of substance P and its metabolites at neutral pH using ionic run buffer additives. Kostel, K.L., Freed, A.L., Lunte, S.M. Journal of chromatography. A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of the acidity of residual silanol groups in several liquid chromatography columns. Méndez, A., Bosch, E., Rosés, M., Neue, U.D. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Immobilization of dermatan sulphate on a silica matrix and its possible use as an affinity chromatography support for heparin cofactor II purification. Sinniger, V., Tapon-Bretaudière, J., Zhou, F.L., Bros, A., Muller, D., Jozefonvicz, J., Fischer, A.M. J. Chromatogr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Microscopic and macroscopic characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanocrystalline NaZSM-5. Song, W., Woodworth, J.F., Grassian, V.H., Larsen, S.C. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Solution effects on the surface reactions of three bioactive glass compositions. Filgueiras, M.R., LaTorre, G., Hench, L.L. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Chemical force titrations of amine- and sulfonic acid-modified poly(dimethylsiloxane). Wang, B., Oleschuk, R.D., Horton, J.H. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
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