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Chemical Compound Review

Paraxenol     4-phenylphenol

Synonyms: p-Biphenylol, p-Phenylphenol, Biphenyl-4-ol, PubChem17429, Tetrasin P 300, ...
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Disease relevance of Paraxenol


Psychiatry related information on Paraxenol


High impact information on Paraxenol


Biological context of Paraxenol


Anatomical context of Paraxenol


Associations of Paraxenol with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Paraxenol

  • Conjugases such as UDP- glucuronosyltransferases with substrates 3-OH benzo(a)pyrene (UGT1) and 4-hydroxybiphenyl (UGT2) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) with substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were higher by 72, 69, and 33% in RF and 28, 38, and 24% in rRF groups, respectively [24].
  • Based on this work we conclude that morphine and 4-hydroxybiphenyl can react with separate UDPGT isoforms [14].
  • Small intestinal morphine and 4-hydroxybiphenyl UGT activities appeared to be moderately (2- to 3-fold) induced by oral treatment with BNF [25].
  • The method requires only 0.3 mg of protein and its sensitivity was as low as 0.36 nmol metabolite formed/mg protein/h (0.32 pmol injected) for 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybiphenyl [26].
  • The following enzyme activities were determined: cytochrome P-448-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (ERDE) and cytochrome P-450-dependent aldrin epoxidase (AE), and, furthermore, the GT form(s) metabolizing 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (GT1) and the GT form(s) metabolizing 4-hydroxybiphenyl (GT2) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Paraxenol


  1. Baculovirus-directed expression of rabbit UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Nguyen, N., Tukey, R.H. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of the environmental oestrogens bisphenol A, tetrachlorobisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl on oestrogen receptor binding, cell proliferation and regulation of oestrogen sensitive proteins in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Olsen, C.M., Meussen-Elholm, E.T., Samuelsen, M., Holme, J.A., Hongslo, J.K. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Reverse geometrical selectivity in glucuronidation and sulfation of cis- and trans-4-hydroxytamoxifens by human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Nishiyama, T., Ogura, K., Nakano, H., Ohnuma, T., Kaku, T., Hiratsuka, A., Muro, K., Watabe, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Biotransformation in carcinogen-induced diploid and polyploid hepatocytes separated by centrifugal elutriation. Watkins, J.B., Thierau, D., Schwarz, L.R. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression and functional domains of rabbit liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B16 and 2B13. Li, Q., Lou, X., Peyronneau, M.A., Straub, P.O., Tukey, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Organization of the rat UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UDPGTr-2, gene and characterization of its promoter. Mackenzie, P.I., Rodbourn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Purification and properties of a rat liver phenobarbital-inducible 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Styczynski, P., Green, M., Puig, J., Coffman, B., Tephly, T. Mol. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Estrogen receptor-binding activity of polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls: conformationally restricted structural probes. Korach, K.S., Sarver, P., Chae, K., McLachlan, J.A., McKinney, J.D. Mol. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Using three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships to examine estrogen receptor binding affinities of polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls. Waller, C.L., Minor, D.L., McKinney, J.D. Environ. Health Perspect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Hydroxylation of biphenyl by the yeast Trichosporon mucoides. Sietmann, R., Hammer, E., Moody, J., Cerniglia, C.E., Schauer, F. Arch. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Sulphation of hydroxybiphenyls in human tissues. Pacifici, G.M., Vannucci, L., Bencini, C., Tusini, G., Mosca, F. Xenobiotica (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative studies of the chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-catalysed peroxidation of acridan (GZ-11) and luminol reactions: effect of pH and scavengers of reactive oxygen species on the light intensity of these systems. Osman, A.M., Zomer, G., Laane, C., Hilhorst, R. Luminescence : the journal of biological and chemical luminescence. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Oxidative ring cleavage of low chlorinated biphenyl derivatives by fungi leads to the formation of chlorinated lactone derivatives. Sietmann, R., Gesell, M., Hammer, E., Schauer, F. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and purification of rat liver morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Puig, J.F., Tephly, T.R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytotoxic effects of biphenyl and hydroxybiphenyls on isolated rat hepatocytes. Nakagawa, Y., Tayama, S., Moore, G., Moldéus, P. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Monoclonal antibodies against 4-hydroxybiphenyl-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Augustin, C., von Meyerinck, L., Schmoldt, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Drug metabolizing enzyme activities in rat liver epithelial cell lines, hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Schrenk, D., Eisenmann-Tappe, I., Gebhardt, R., Mayer, D., el Mouelhi, M., Röhrdanz, E., Münzel, P., Bock, K.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Metabolic activation of o-phenylphenol to a major cytotoxic metabolite, phenylhydroquinone: role of human CYP1A2 and rat CYP2C11/CYP2E1. Ozawa, S., Ohta, K., Miyajima, A., Kurebayashi, H., Sunouchi, M., Shimizu, M., Murayama, N., Matsumoto, Y., Fukuoka, M., Ohno, Y. Xenobiotica (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning and characterization of rabbit liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase cDNAs. Developmental and inducible expression of 4-hydroxybiphenyl UGT2B13. Tukey, R.H., Pendurthi, U.R., Nguyen, N.T., Green, M.D., Tephly, T.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Fungal metabolism of biphenyl. Dodge, R.H., Cerniglia, C.E., Gibson, D.T. Biochem. J. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Minimal effect of acute experimental hepatitis induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine on biotransformation in rats. Omar H el-D, n.u.l.l., Sanders, R.A., Watkins, J.B. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Influence of the sulphation inhibitor, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol, on the production and conjugation, of 4-hydroxybiphenyl generated from 4-methoxybiphenyl by rat isolated hepatocytes. Fry, J.R., Paterson, P. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Increase of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities toward xenobiotics during the development of hereditary hepatitis in LEC rats. Yokota, H., Ikezoe, H., Inaba, T., Sanda, D., Yuasa, A., Kasai, N. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Malnutrition sequela on the drug metabolizing enzymes in male Holtzman rats. Reen, R.K., Melo, G.E., Moraes-Santos, T. J. Nutr. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Tissue-specific regulation of canine intestinal and hepatic phenol and morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferases by beta-naphthoflavone in comparison with humans. Bock, K.W., Bock-Hennig, B.S., Münzel, P.A., Brandenburg, J.O., Köhle, C.T., Soars, M.G., Riley, R.J., Burchell, B., Richter, O., Eichelbaum, M.F., Swedmark, S., Orzechowski, A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Coupled beta-cyclodextrin and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for assessing biphenyl hydroxylase activity in hepatic 9000g supernatant. Weaver, D.E., van Lier, R.B. Anal. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of monooxygenase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Forster, U., Luippold, G., Schwarz, L.R. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Metabolism of dichlorobiphenyls by highly purified isozymes of rat liver cytochrome P-450. Kaminsky, L.S., Kennedy, M.W., Adams, S.M., Guengerich, F.P. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Oxidation of biphenyl by the cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria sp., strain JCM. Cerniglia, C.E., Van Baalen, C., Gibson, D.T. Arch. Microbiol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Detection of androgenic activity in emissions from diesel fuel and biomass combustion. Owens, C.V., Lambright, C., Cardon, M., Gray, L.E., Gullett, B.K., Wilson, V.S. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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