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Chemical Compound Review

PubChem11047     cyclobutanamine

Synonyms: SureCN16479, AG-E-76278, AG-K-62458, ACMC-209ghn, ANW-25641, ...
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Disease relevance of CBG

  • CONCLUSIONS--Intensive CIT, when combined with CBG measurements, can be used to rapidly improve glycemic control in type II diabetes without development of unacceptable hypoglycemia [1].
  • Bone marrow cells from 121 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma were analyzed cytogenetically by standard banding techniques including RHG, GTG and CBG banding [2].
  • In the meningioma cells, one chromosome 22 was replaced by an almost metacentric, bisatellited marker chromosome that appeared monocentric after CBG-staining [3].
  • Higher porosity and larger pore diameters in the CBG and ACS groups suggested higher bone resorption versus formation in these groups compared to the BMP group [4].
  • No other CBG variants were identified among other normal controls (n = 66) or nine patients with Cushing's syndrome [5].

High impact information on CBG

  • Under acute stress conditions, the synthesis of TTR, RBP, and CBG is abruptly depressed by a cytokine-directed orchestration of new metabolic priorities, with a redistribution of organ and tissue protein pools [6].
  • The chromosome is negative for CBG banding and is devoid of detectable centromeric alpha satellite and its associated centromere protein CENP-B, suggesting activation of a neocentromere within the 1p32-36.1 region [7].
  • CBG and NOR banding were not informative in determining the location of the centromere [8].
  • The chromosomal constitution based on QFQ (Q bands by fluorescence using quinacrine) RFA (R bands by fluorescence using acridine orange), GTG (G band by Giemsa using trypsin), and CBG (C band by Giemsa using barium hydroxide) techniques was 46, XX, duplicated (9; q12), inverted (9; p12q12.1) in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts [9].
  • Here we have examined if any of these single amino acid substitutions could be responsible for the difference in CBG binding and affinity for cortisol between the parental breeds, using in vitro assays of Cbg variants after transfection of mammalian cells [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of CBG

  • The effect of transportation/relocation on cortisol, CBG and induction of puberty in gilts with delayed puberty [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant correlation in pH, PCO2, PO2, BE, and HCO3 among ABG, VBG, and CBG values, except for a poor correlation in PO2 in the presence of hypotension [12].

Biological context of CBG


Anatomical context of CBG

  • Adrenal, thymus, and body wts were measured as were transcortin (CBG) and adrenal phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase activity [17].
  • Evidence regarding the nature of the regulatory factors which directly act upon liver cells and extra-hepatic tissues to alter CBG synthesis is scarce [18].
  • Following high-resolution GTG, RBG, QFQ, and CBG bandings, five cell lines were identified; 45,X/46,X,+mar1/46,X,+mar2/47,X,+mar1x2/47,X,+mar2x 2 [19].
  • In previous papers we provided evidence for a glucocorticoid (GC) responsive site in a highly purified rat liver plasma membrane (PM) fraction, which has proved to be osmotically active, 'right side-out' vesicles, free of CBG, glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and ATP (J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. 42 (1992) 737-756 and 757-771) [20].
  • Analyses of the host bone and junctions between allograft and host bone revealed significantly greater new bone formation and larger osteon radii in the BMP group compared to CBG and ACS groups and contralateral intact bone [4].

Associations of CBG with other chemical compounds

  • Progesterone-binding plasma proteins (PBPP, progesterone-binding globulin, PBG, and corticosteroid binding globulin, CBG) have been measured in plasma of guinea-pigs, casiragua, cuis, degu and plains viscacha [21].
  • In adult male ducks submitted to marked variations in plasma testosterone concentration, plasma transcortin (CBG) levels were shown to be closely related to the level of plasma testosterone [22].
  • DNA adducts with cyclobutylamine and cyclohexylamine ligands inhibited the hydrolysis of platinum-DNA complexes by S1 nuclease [23].
  • These findings suggest that CBG is synthesized in the uterine endometrium, predominantly in the secretory phase, and that the serum E2/progesterone ratio exerts an influence on the synthesis of intracellular CBG [24].
  • The heterogeneity of the C-band of human chromosome 1 has been evaluated using several selective staining methods: C-banding (CBG), distamycin A plus 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DA/DAPI) and Giemsa G-11 pattern following the treatment with the restriction endonucleases AluI and HaeIII [25].

Gene context of CBG

  • SHBG levels were slightly suppressed, whereas F and CBG levels were unaffected [26].
  • Among the negative APP, neither albumin nor prealbumin decreased while CBG increased [27].
  • Negative feedback is ameliorated by decreased pituitary and hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor, increased CBG, and altered fetal pituitary 11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 [28].
  • Differentiation between steroid hormone receptors CBG and SHBG in human target organ extracts by a single-step assay [29].
  • Only FMS patients displayed lower CBG and basal serum cortisol concentrations when compared to controls [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CBG

  • The variant involves additional material at the band 9p12, which shows homogeneous staining of intermediate density with GTL- and RBG-banding, and negative staining with CBG-banding [31].
  • In transverse sections of allografts, the largest pore diameters were present in the CBG group [4].
  • Size and pericentric inversion heteromorphisms of secondary constriction regions (h) of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 as detected by CBG technique in Caucasians: classification, frequencies, and incidence [32].
  • Double immunodiffusion analysis indicated that only CBG in Old World monkeys and apes cross-react with the hCBG antiserum [33].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Sperm count, morphology, and GBG, RBG, and CBG banding [16].


  1. Intensive conventional insulin therapy for type II diabetes. Metabolic effects during a 6-mo outpatient trial. Henry, R.R., Gumbiner, B., Ditzler, T., Wallace, P., Lyon, R., Glauber, H.S. Diabetes Care (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Der(16)t(1;16)(q10;p10) in multiple myeloma: a new non-random abnormality that is frequently associated with Burkitt's-type translocations. Mugneret, F., Sidaner, I., Favre, B., Manone, L., Maynadié, M., Caillot, D., Solary, E. Leukemia (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytogenetic and in situ DNA-hybridization studies in intracranial tumors of a patient with central neurofibromatosis. Wullich, B., Kiechle-Schwarz, M., Mayfrank, L., Schempp, W. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Histomorphometric description of allograft bone remodeling and union in a canine segmental femoral defect model: a comparison of rhBMP-2, cancellous bone graft, and absorbable collagen sponge. Zabka, A.G., Pluhar, G.E., Edwards, R.B., Manley, P.A., Hayashi, K., Heiner, J.P., Kalscheur, V.L., Seeherman, H.J., Markel, n.u.l.l. J. Orthop. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and characterization of a human corticosteroid binding globulin variant with a reduced affinity for cortisol. Robinson, P.A., Hammond, G.L. J. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Transthyretin (prealbumin) in health and disease: nutritional implications. Ingenbleek, Y., Young, V. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Neocentromere formation in a stable ring 1p32-p36.1 chromosome. Slater, H.R., Nouri, S., Earle, E., Lo, A.W., Hale, L.G., Choo, K.H. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Elucidation of the centromere involvement in an inversion (13) by fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Gordon, P.L., Dalton, J.D., Martens, P.R., Tharapel, A.T., Wilroy, R.S. J. Med. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Primary amenorrhea in a black female with duplication and inversion of the secondary constriction regions of chromosome 9. Khan, F., Verma, R.S., Dosik, H., Warman, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional implication of an Arg307Gly substitution in corticosteroid-binding globulin, a candidate gene for a quantitative trait locus associated with cortisol variability and obesity in pig. Guyonnet-Dupérat, V., Geverink, N., Plastow, G.S., Evans, G., Ousova, O., Croisetière, C., Foury, A., Richard, E., Mormède, P., Moisan, M.P. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The effect of transportation/relocation on cortisol, CBG and induction of puberty in gilts with delayed puberty. Dalin, A.M., Nyberg, L., Eliasson, L. Acta Vet. Scand. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Correlation of simultaneously obtained capillary, venous, and arterial blood gases of patients in a paediatric intensive care unit. Yildizdaş, D., Yapicioğlu, H., Yilmaz, H.L., Sertdemir, Y. Arch. Dis. Child. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Adrenalectomy in the neonate: adult-like adrenocortical system responses to both removal and replacement of corticosterone. Walker, C.D., Akana, S.F., Cascio, C.S., Dallman, M.F. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Unique (Y;13) translocation in a male with oligozoospermia: cytogenetic and molecular studies. Alves, C., Carvalho, F., Cremades, N., Sousa, M., Barros, A. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. FLUFF-BALL, a template-based grid-independent superposition and QSAR technique: validation using a benchmark steroid data set. Korhonen, S.P., Tuppurainen, K., Laatikainen, R., Peräkylä, M. Journal of chemical information and computer sciences. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Nonrobertsonian translocation t(6;11) is associated with infertility in an oligoazoospermic male. Pernice, F., Mazza, G., Puglisi, D., Luppino, M.G., Frisina, N. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Feedback sensitivity of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and its capacity to adjust to exogenous corticosterone. Akana, S.F., Scribner, K.A., Bradbury, M.J., Strack, A.M., Walker, C.D., Dallman, M.F. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of corticosteroid-binding globulin synthesis by 1alpha,25-dihyroxy-vitamin D3 (calcitriol), 9-cis-retinoic acid and triiodothyronine in cultured rat fetal hepatocytes. Elfahime, E., Félix, J.M., Koch, B. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization by fluorescence and electron microscopy in situ hybridization of a double Y isochromosome. Fetni, R., Krabchi, K., Messier, P.E., Richer, C.L., Lemieux, N. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Glucocorticoid-recognizing and -effector sites in rat liver plasma membrane. Kinetics of corticosterone uptake by isolated membrane vesicles. III. Specificity and stereospecificity. Lackner, C., Daufeldt, S., Wildt, L., Alléra, A. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Progesterone-binding proteins in plasma of guinea-pigs and other hystricomorph rodents. Heap, R.B., Ackland, N., Weir, B.J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Androgen control of transcortin binding capacity in adult male ducks. Daniel, J.Y., Malaval, F., Assenmacher, I. Steroids (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of the amine non-leaving group on the structure and stability of DNA complexes with cis-[Pt(R-NH2)2(NO3)2]. Butour, J.L., Alvinerie, P., Souchard, J.P., Colson, P., Houssier, C., Johnson, N.P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Corticosteroid-binding globulin mRNA levels in human uterine endometrium. Misao, R., Hori, M., Ichigo, S., Fujimoto, J., Tamaya, T. Steroids (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Cytochemical heterogeneity of the C-band in human chromosome 1. Babu, A., Verma, R.S. Histochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Placebo-controlled cross-over study of effects of Org OD 14 in menopausal women. Kicovic, P.M., Cortés-Prieto, J., Luisi, M., Milojevic, S., Franchi, F. Reproducción. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of rat alpha-1-acid glycoprotein by phenobarbital is independent of a general acute-phase response. Fournier, T., Vranckx, R., Mejdoubi, N., Durand, G., Porquet, D. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) development and activation as a determinant of the timing of birth, and of postnatal disease. Challis, J., Sloboda, D., Matthews, S., Holloway, A., Alfaidy, N., Howe, D., Fraser, M., Newnham, J. Endocr. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Differentiation between steroid hormone receptors CBG and SHBG in human target organ extracts by a single-step assay. Wagner, R.K., Jungblut, P.W. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. Glucocorticoid receptors, fibromyalgia and low back pain. Lentjes, E.G., Griep, E.N., Boersma, J.W., Romijn, F.P., de Kloet, E.R. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Non C-banding variants in some normal families might be homogeneously staining regions. Webb, G.C., Krumins, E.J., Eichenbaum, S.Z., Voullaire, L.E., Earle, E., Choó, K.H. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Size and pericentric inversion heteromorphisms of secondary constriction regions (h) of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 as detected by CBG technique in Caucasians: classification, frequencies, and incidence. Verma, R.S., Dosik, H., Lubs, H.A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1978) [Pubmed]
  33. A phylogenetic study of the structural and functional characteristics of corticosteroid binding globulin in primates. Robinson, P.A., Hawkey, C., Hammond, G.L. J. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
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