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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Sperm Count

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Disease relevance of Sperm Count


High impact information on Sperm Count


Chemical compound and disease context of Sperm Count

  • Higher FSH levels and lower sperm counts correlated inversely in the cryptorchidism group, while luteinizing hormone, testosterone and other results of semen analysis did not differ [9].
  • Although body weight gain was depressed, none of the other measurements taken (epididymal sperm count, fructolytic activity of spermatozoa, relative weights of the reproductive organs, concentration of fructose in coagulating glands and fertility in relation to females impregnated, conceiving and litter size) was affected [10].
  • Although the group of 16 subjects was small, all were men with long-standing infertility that had been refractory to previous treatments such as exogenous injections of human chorionic gonadotropin and varicocelectomy; 10 of the 16 men (62.5%) showed improvement in sperm counts within 2 to 5 months of starting clomiphene [11].
  • The increase in infertility was calculated for a proportional reduction of all sperm counts within a population and for a group of workers exposed to dibromochloropropane [12].
  • Azoospermia or severe oligospermia was found in 13 of 17 patients receiving cyclophosphamide with or without colchicine, whereas the sperm count was almost normal in six patients treated with colchicine alone and in four patients receiving neither drug (control patients) [13].

Biological context of Sperm Count

  • In other sterile lines, TK was expressed at a lower level and sperm counts were normal but sperm motility was greatly reduced [14].
  • However, inactivation of the Arl4 gene resulted in a significant reduction of testis weight and sperm count by 30 and 60%, respectively, without reduction of litter size or frequency [15].
  • To test this hypothesis, we typed the Y chromosome in a group of Danish men with known sperm counts and compared the haplotype distribution with that of a group of unselected Danish males [16].
  • The presence of this transgene [and thus the interspecies hybrid (i.e. mouse alpha:human FSHbeta hormone)] in the background of mouse FSHbeta deficiency completely restored the testis size, sperm number, and motility defects to levels comparable to those seen in control male mice [17].
  • Reconstitution of male csfmop/csfmop mice with either circulating T in the adult or circulating CSF-1 throughout the postnatal period completely restored viable sperm numbers and significantly restored sexual behavior [18].

Anatomical context of Sperm Count


Associations of Sperm Count with chemical compounds


Gene context of Sperm Count

  • When three or more seminal fluid samples collected 1 month apart were available from the same individual, the coefficient of variation was 10.0 +/- 1.26% (+/- SE) for IGFBP-3 by RIA vs. 73.3 +/- 11.2% for sperm counts in the same samples [28].
  • Tenr mutant males have a reduced sperm count, and Tenr-/- sperm show a decrease in motility and an increase in malformed heads [29].
  • Epididymal sperm count and sperm motility were greater in 12-week-old rescued mice than in age-matched Dax1-deficient mice [30].
  • In addition, disruption of hsf2 resulted in reduced female fertility; however, despite ubiquitous expression in the testes and markedly reduced testis size and sperm count, only a small reduction in fertility was apparent in hsf2(-/-) male mice [31].
  • We therefore conclude that the deletion of the DAZ1/DAZ2 gene doublet in five out of our 63 oligozoospermic patients (8%) is responsible for the patients' reduced sperm numbers [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sperm Count


  1. D-Tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone as a protective agent against testicular damage caused by cyclophosphamide in baboons. Lewis, R.W., Dowling, K.J., Schally, A.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. HST-1/FGF-4 protects male germ cells from apoptosis under heat-stress condition. Hirai, K., Sasaki, H., Yamamoto, H., Sakamoto, H., Kubota, Y., Kakizoe, T., Terada, M., Ochiya, T. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparing alternative approaches to establishing regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants: DBCP as a case study. Pease, W., Vandenberg, J., Hooper, K. Environ. Health Perspect. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic toxicology of phthalate esters: mutagenic and other genotoxic effects. Douglas, G.R., Hugenholtz, A.P., Blakey, D.H. Environ. Health Perspect. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Chlorambucil treatment in minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome: a reappraisal of its gonadal toxicity. Callis, L., Nieto, J., Vila, A., Rende, J. J. Pediatr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Severe oligozoospermia resulting from deletions of azoospermia factor gene on Y chromosome. Reijo, R., Alagappan, R.K., Patrizio, P., Page, D.C. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Steroid treatment of male subfertility caused by antisperm antibodies. Hendry, W.F., Stedronska, J., Hughes, L., Cameron, K.M., Pugh, R.C. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of testosterone to prevent cyclophosphamide-induced azoospermia. Masala, A., Faedda, R., Alagna, S., Satta, A., Chiarelli, G., Rovasio, P.P., Ivaldi, R., Taras, M.S., Lai, E., Bartoli, E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Correlations among hormone levels, sperm parameters and paternity in formerly unilaterally cryptorchid men. Lee, P.A., Bellinger, M.F., Coughlin, M.T. J. Urol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Undernutrition and fertility of male rats. Ghafoorunissa, n.u.l.l. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Clomiphene treatment in oligospermic infertile males. Epstein, J.A. Fertil. Steril. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Estimation of the increased risk of human infertility from alterations in semen characteristics. Meistrich, M.L., Brown, C.C. Fertil. Steril. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppression of spermatogenesis in patients with Behçet's disease treated with cyclophosphamide and colchicine. Fukutani, K., Ishida, H., Shinohara, M., Minowada, S., Niijima, T., Hijikata, K., Izawa, Y. Fertil. Steril. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase is expressed in the testes of transgenic mice under the control of a cryptic promoter. al-Shawi, R., Burke, J., Wallace, H., Jones, C., Harrison, S., Buxton, D., Maley, S., Chandley, A., Bishop, J.O. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Reduced sperm count and normal fertility in male mice with targeted disruption of the ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4 (Arl4) gene. Schürmann, A., Koling, S., Jacobs, S., Saftig, P., Krauss, S., Wennemuth, G., Kluge, R., Joost, H.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a Y chromosome haplogroup associated with reduced sperm counts. Krausz, C., Quintana-Murci, L., Rajpert-De Meyts, E., Jørgensen, N., Jobling, M.A., Rosser, Z.H., Skakkebaek, N.E., McElreavey, K. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic rescue of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-deficient mice. Kumar, T.R., Low, M.J., Matzuk, M.M. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Absence of colony-stimulating factor-1 in osteopetrotic (csfmop/csfmop) mice results in male fertility defects. Cohen, P.E., Chisholm, O., Arceci, R.J., Stanley, E.R., Pollard, J.W. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunoreactive human epidermal growth factor in human seminal plasma. D'Cruz, O.J., Haas, G.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmental expression and function of Bmp4 in spermatogenesis and in maintaining epididymal integrity. Hu, J., Chen, Y.X., Wang, D., Qi, X., Li, T.G., Hao, J., Mishina, Y., Garbers, D.L., Zhao, G.Q. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Vitamin D is an important factor in estrogen biosynthesis of both female and male gonads. Kinuta, K., Tanaka, H., Moriwake, T., Aya, K., Kato, S., Seino, Y. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Involvement of epidermal growth factor deficiency in pathogenesis of oligozoospermia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Noguchi, S., Ohba, Y., Oka, T. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Leptin is a metabolic signal to the reproductive system. Barash, I.A., Cheung, C.C., Weigle, D.S., Ren, H., Kabigting, E.B., Kuijper, J.L., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Separate mechanisms for procarbazine spermatotoxicity and anticancer activity. Horstman, M.G., Meadows, G.G., Yost, G.S. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in thyrotoxicosis. Kidd, G.S., Glass, A.R., Vigersky, R.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Testosterone prevents complete suppression of spermatogenesis in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-treated nonhuman primate (Macaca fascicularis). Weinbauer, G.F., Göckeler, E., Nieschlag, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Short-term suppression of GH and IGF-I levels improves gonadal function and sperm parameters in men with acromegaly. Colao, A., De Rosa, M., Pivonello, R., Balestrieri, A., Cappabianca, P., Di Sarno, A., Rochira, V., Carani, C., Lombardi, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in the male reproductive tract. Plymate, S.R., Rosen, C.J., Paulsen, C.A., Ware, J.L., Chen, J., Vessella, R.E., Birnbaum, R.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Disruption of murine Tenr results in teratospermia and male infertility. Connolly, C.M., Dearth, A.T., Braun, R.E. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Sertoli cell-specific rescue of fertility, but not testicular pathology, in Dax1 (Ahch)-deficient male mice. Jeffs, B., Ito, M., Yu, R.N., Martinson, F.A., Wang, Z.J., Doglio, L.T., Jameson, J.L. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Targeted disruption of the heat shock transcription factor (hsf)-2 gene results in increased embryonic lethality, neuronal defects, and reduced spermatogenesis. Wang, G., Zhang, J., Moskophidis, D., Mivechi, N.F. Genesis (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. High frequency of DAZ1/DAZ2 gene deletions in patients with severe oligozoospermia. Fernandes, S., Huellen, K., Goncalves, J., Dukal, H., Zeisler, J., Rajpert De Meyts, E., Skakkebaek, N.E., Habermann, B., Krause, W., Sousa, M., Barros, A., Vogt, P.H. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. A high frequency of Y chromosome deletions in males with nonidiopathic infertility. Krausz, C., Quintana-Murci, L., Barbaux, S., Siffroi, J.P., Rouba, H., Delafontaine, D., Souleyreau-Therville, N., Arvis, G., Antoine, J.M., Erdei, E., Taar, J.P., Tar, A., Jeandidier, E., Plessis, G., Bourgeron, T., Dadoune, J.P., Fellous, M., McElreavey, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. trans-Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant from grapes, increases sperm output in healthy rats. Juan, M.E., González-Pons, E., Munuera, T., Ballester, J., Rodríguez-Gil, J.E., Planas, J.M. J. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the neuroendocrine-male reproductive tract axis of the adult rat. Seethalakshmi, L., Menon, M., Diamond, D. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Sperm chromatin structure is altered in cynomolgus monkeys with environmentally relevant blood lead levels. Foster, W.G., McMahon, A., Rice, D.C. Toxicology and industrial health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of castration on epididymal sperm storage in male musk shrews (Suncus murinus) and mice (Mus musculus). Rissman, E.F., Crews, D. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1989) [Pubmed]
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