The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Ttr  -  transthyretin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Lr1, Prealbumin, TBPA, Tbpa, Transthyretin, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ttr


Psychiatry related information on Ttr

  • Here we present evidence that the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), previously associated with Alzheimer's disease, acts as a selective cell surface acceptor site for both soluble and fibrillar TTR [6].
  • Rat transthyretin: effects of acute short-term food deprivation and refeeding on serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentration and on hepatic mRNA level [7].

High impact information on Ttr

  • HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4) is a protein enriched in liver extracts that binds to sites required for the transcription of the genes for transthyretin (TTR), the carrier protein in the serum for vitamin A and thyroid hormone, and for apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), a major constituent of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) [8].
  • Unlike its association with low vitamin A level in the liver, the lesion could be seen even in the presence of normal serum values of vitamin A, retinol binding protein, and prealbumin [9].
  • Immunocytochemical studies on the localization of plasma and of cellular retinol-binding proteins and of transthyretin (prealbumin) in rat liver and kidney [10].
  • Pulse-chase experiments in conjunction with subcellular fractionation and quantitative immunoprecipitation have been used to study the intracellular transport of four secretory proteins, albumin, transferrin, prealbumin and retinol-binding protein, in isolated rat hepatocytes [11].
  • In aged rats fed throughout life with PUFA-enriched diets, genes with altered expressions included transthyretin, alpha-synuclein, and calmodulins, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and learning [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ttr


Biological context of Ttr


Anatomical context of Ttr

  • This stimulation also affected transthyretin expression in choroid plexus [1].
  • Both retinol-binding protein mRNA and transthyretin mRNA in the visceral yolk sac were found to be specifically localized in the endodermal layer [19].
  • Short-term administration of omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil results in increased transthyretin transcription in old rat hippocampus [20].
  • Retinol-binding protein mRNA and transthyretin mRNA were both detected in the liver of fetuses at 14 days of gestation [19].
  • Immunoreactive TTR was localized in cells that were more centrally distributed in the islets, with an anatomic distribution that resembled that of the insulin-containing B cells [21].

Associations of Ttr with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ttr


Regulatory relationships of Ttr


Other interactions of Ttr


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ttr


  1. Structure and expression of the rat transthyretin (prealbumin) gene. Fung, W.P., Thomas, T., Dickson, P.W., Aldred, A.R., Milland, J., Dziadek, M., Power, B., Hudson, P., Schreiber, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. The primary structure of rabbit and rat prealbumin and a comparison with the tertiary structure of human prealbumin. Sundelin, J., Melhus, H., Das, S., Eriksson, U., Lind, P., Trägårdh, L., Peterson, P.A., Rask, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Combined proteomic approach with SELDI-TOF-MS and peptide mass fingerprinting identified the rapid increase of monomeric transthyretin in rat cerebrospinal fluid after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Suzuyama, K., Shiraishi, T., Oishi, T., Ueda, S., Okamoto, H., Furuta, M., Mineta, T., Tabuchi, K. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. A liver-specific DNA-binding protein recognizes multiple nucleotide sites in regulatory regions of transthyretin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, albumin, and simian virus 40 genes. Costa, R.H., Grayson, D.R., Xanthopoulos, K.G., Darnell, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Receptor-mediated uptake and internalization of transthyretin. Divino, C.M., Schussler, G.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) with transthyretin triggers nuclear transcription factor kB (NF-kB) activation. Sousa, M.M., Yan, S.D., Stern, D., Saraiva, M.J. Lab. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Rat transthyretin: effects of acute short-term food deprivation and refeeding on serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentration and on hepatic mRNA level. Wade, S., Bleiberg-Daniel, F., Le Moullac, B. J. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Liver-enriched transcription factor HNF-4 is a novel member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. Sladek, F.M., Zhong, W.M., Lai, E., Darnell, J.E. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of hepatic vitamin A depletion on the liver in humans and rats. Leo, M.A., Sato, M., Lieber, C.S. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunocytochemical studies on the localization of plasma and of cellular retinol-binding proteins and of transthyretin (prealbumin) in rat liver and kidney. Kato, M., Kato, K., Goodman, D.S. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Four secretory proteins synthesized by hepatocytes are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi complex at different rates. Fries, E., Gustafsson, L., Peterson, P.A. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain gene expression. Kitajka, K., Sinclair, A.J., Weisinger, R.S., Weisinger, H.S., Mathai, M., Jayasooriya, A.P., Halver, J.E., Puskás, L.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids improves transthyretin turnover in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis. Usui, T., Moriwaki, H., Hatakeyama, H., Kasai, T., Kato, M., Seishima, M., Okuno, M., Ohnishi, H., Yoshida, T., Muto, Y. J. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Role of variant prealbumin in the pathogenesis of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: fate of normal and variant prealbumin in the circulation. Ando, Y., Ikegawa, S., Miyazaki, A., Inoue, M., Morino, Y., Araki, S. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes lowers retinol-binding protein and transthyretin concentrations in rats. Tuitoek, P.J., Ritter, S.J., Smith, J.E., Basu, T.K. Br. J. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid hormone treatment of the rat on hepatic Spot 14 and thyroxine binding prealbumin mRNAs. Franklyn, J.A., King, S., Ahlquist, J.A., Sheppard, M.C. Acta Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential regulation of hepatocyte-enriched transcription factors explains changes in albumin and transthyretin gene expression among hepatoma cells. Herbst, R.S., Nielsch, U., Sladek, F., Lai, E., Babiss, L.E., Darnell, J.E. New Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Rat transthyretin (prealbumin). Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and gene expression in liver and brain. Dickson, P.W., Howlett, G.J., Schreiber, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Retinol-binding protein and transthyretin mRNA levels in visceral yolk sac and liver during fetal development in the rat. Soprano, D.R., Soprano, K.J., Goodman, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Short-term administration of omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil results in increased transthyretin transcription in old rat hippocampus. Puskás, L.G., Kitajka, K., Nyakas, C., Barcelo-Coblijn, G., Farkas, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Plasma and cellular retinoid-binding proteins and transthyretin (prealbumin) are all localized in the islets of Langerhans in the rat. Kato, M., Kato, K., Blaner, W.S., Chertow, B.S., Goodman, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Novel quantitative trait loci for blood pressure and related traits on rat chromosomes 1, 10, and 18. Kovács, P., Voigt, B., Klöting, I. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Amyloid formation in rat transthyretin: effect of oxidative stress. Tajiri, T., Ando, Y., Hata, K., Kamide, K., Hashimoto, M., Nakamura, M., Terazaki, H., Yamashita, T., Kai, H., Haraoka, K., Imasato, A., Takechi, K., Nakagawa, K., Okabe, H., Ishizaki, T. Clin. Chim. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Complex of rat transthyretin with tetraiodothyroacetic acid refined at 2.1 and 1.8 A resolution. Muzioł, T., Cody, V., Luft, J.R., Pangborn, W., Wojtczak, A. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential expression of the insulin-like growth factor II and transthyretin genes in the developing rat choroid plexus. Cavallaro, T., Martone, R.L., Stylianopoulou, F., Herbert, J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Hepatic gene expression and cytokine responses to sterile inflammation: comparison with cecal ligation and puncture sepsis in the rat. Bazel, S., Andrejko, K.M., Chen, J., Deutschman, C.S. Shock (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Proteins of rat serum: III. Gender-related differences in protein concentration under baseline conditions and upon experimental inflammation as evaluated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Miller, I., Haynes, P., Eberini, I., Gemeiner, M., Aebersold, R., Gianazza, E. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Induction of rat alpha-1-acid glycoprotein by phenobarbital is independent of a general acute-phase response. Fournier, T., Vranckx, R., Mejdoubi, N., Durand, G., Porquet, D. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification and identification of allergenic alpha (2u)-globulin species of rat urine. Bayard, C., Holmquist, L., Vesterberg, O. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Biochemical characteristics of isolated rat liver stellate cells. Yamada, M., Blaner, W.S., Soprano, D.R., Dixon, J.L., Kjeldbye, H.M., Goodman, D.S. Hepatology (1987) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities