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Gene Review

MTMR11  -  myotubularin related protein 11

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CRA, Cisplatin resistance-associated protein, Myotubularin-related protein 11, hCRA
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Disease relevance of MTMR11

  • Comparisons of the cytotoxic activity of mononuclear cells from venous blood of human subjects against human melanoma cell lines have been made by means of the 51Cr release assay (CRA) and the microcytotoxicity assay (MCA) of Takasugi and Klein [1].
  • Urgent systemic corticosteroids are needed when CRA occlusion, or AION are due to arteritis [2].
  • Emergency treatment in CRA occlusion is designed to lower intra-ocular pressure and dislodge the embolus [2].
  • In addition, while NK activity measured in CRA was normal in most breast cancer patients, NK activity assessed in MCA was decreased in a large majority of the patients [3].
  • The NK cell-mediated necrotic killing has been reliably and selectively measured in humans by the standard 4-h 51Cr release assay (CRA) against K562 myeloid leukemia cell targets [3].

High impact information on MTMR11

  • In postmenopausal women, plasma A was by far the most important precursor of plasma DHT; the CRA/DHTBB was significantly higher than CRT/DHTBB [4].
  • These differences were largely removed when monocytes were depleted by glass absorption and may reflect interference with the CRA by monocytes [1].
  • The gene encoding cisplatin resistance--associated protein (hCRA-alpha) also was overexpressed in epileptic tissue [5].
  • METHOD: The blood velocity in the ophthalmic artery (OA), the central retinal vein (CRV), and artery (CRA) was measured by pulsed Doppler sonography (4-Mhz probe) [6].
  • With multichannel data acquisition and storage software, the velocity pulse curve of the OA, the CRV and CRA, the IOP-pulse curve, the arterial blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram were recorded simultaneously in real-time mode [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of MTMR11


Biological context of MTMR11


Anatomical context of MTMR11

  • 3. A timed FFA, particularly in cases of CRA occlusion when occlusion of the ophthalmic artery is suspected, in cases of AION of possible embolic origin or in AION to document the position of the watershed zone of the choroidal circulation and its relation to the optic nerve head [2].
  • Using purified subpopulations of immune cells, it was demonstrated that among PBMNL, CD3(-)CD56(+)CD16(+) mature NK cells are the only mediators of tumor cell killing in MCA, as well as in CRA [3].
  • Incorrect results were obtained with CRA when target cells were admixed with normal fibroblasts, whereas R-TRAPCTX was not influenced by the presence of normal cells [12].
  • Carbon rod atomic absorption analysis (CRA) was applied to the quantiation of gold lymphocyte content (GLC) during chrysotherapy [13].
  • (51)Cr release assay (CRA) is still the standard method to study mast cell (MC)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro [14].

Associations of MTMR11 with chemical compounds

  • In impending CRA occlusion heparin is useful [2].
  • A peptidyl CRA composed of residues 421-431 with a phosphonate diester moiety at its C terminus was validated as a reagent that combines noncovalent and covalent binding interactions in recognition of a gp120ase L chain [15].
  • Serial determination of CRA and of levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), C4 and C3 in two active patients indicated that the correlation between CRA and the complement components was positive, while that between CRA and CIC was negative [16].
  • Agents that are minimally toxic such as CRA, danazol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, androgens, and pyridoxine are seldom useful [17].
  • Sodium 3,4-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (CRA) is a compound, synthesised by our group from Congo Red (CR), that is active in preventing the pathological conversion of normal prion protein (PrP) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MTMR11

  • Sensitivity and accuracy of CRA compared favorably with 195Au isotopic scintillation counting, circumventing the limitations and hazards of the latter in clinical applications [13].
  • Antibodies (CRA) showed specific labelings on Western immunoblots against a 43,000 dalton protein of the cress root crude extract [18].
  • The effect of CRA/IFN on bcl-2 expression was assessed in PBMCs by immunoblotting [19].
  • RI in the CRA was significantly higher in the BDR group (0.74+/-0.09) than in the control group (0.68+/-0.08, p = 0.006) [9].
  • Sixty-percent of the total 700 examinations carried out in 1994 were performed using a combination of IP-CRA and fluorographic digital subtraction angiography (F-DSA) [20].


  1. Comparison of 51Cr release and microcytotoxicity assays against human melanoma cells. Hersey, P., Edwards, J., Edwards, A., Adams, E., Kearney, R., Milton, G.W. Int. J. Cancer (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. The management of acute visual failure. Wray, S.H. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Measurement of NK activity by the microcytotoxicity assay (MCA): a new application for an old assay. Wahlberg, B.J., Burholt, D.R., Kornblith, P., Richards, T.J., Bruffsky, A., Herberman, R.B., Vujanovic, N.L. J. Immunol. Methods (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Metabolic clearance rate and interconversion of androgens and the influence of the free androgen fraction. Vermeulen, A., Andó, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpression of multiple drug resistance genes in endothelial cells from patients with refractory epilepsy. Dombrowski, S.M., Desai, S.Y., Marroni, M., Cucullo, L., Goodrich, K., Bingaman, W., Mayberg, M.R., Bengez, L., Janigro, D. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Relationship between ocular pulse pressures and retinal vessel velocities. Michelson, G., Harazny, J. Ophthalmology (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Optic disk manifestation in diabetic eyes with low serum albumin: late fluorescein staining and high blood flow velocities in the optic disk. Fujioka, S., Karashima, K., Nishikawa, N., Saito, Y. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Natural killer (NK) cell activity of first trimester human decidua. Manaseki, S., Searle, R.F. Cell. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Choroidal circulation in diabetic patients. Dimitrova, G., Kato, S., Tamaki, Y., Yamashita, H., Nagahara, M., Sakurai, M., Kitano, S., Fukushima, H. Eye (London, England) (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacokinetics and distribution of sodium 3,4-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate, a Congo Red derivative active in inhibiting PrP(res) replication. Gervasoni, M., Pirola, R., Pollera, C., Villa, S., Cignarella, G., Mantegazza, P., Poli, G., Bareggi, S.R. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Color Doppler imaging in the study of retrobulbar hemodynamic changes of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Nong, T., Ninghua, F. Yan ke xue bao = Eye science / "Yan ke xue bao" bian ji bu. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel telomerase-based approach to detect natural cell-mediated cytotoxic activity against tumor cells in vitro. Faraoni, I., Cottarelli, A., Giuliani, A., Bonmassar, L., Rossi, L., Bonmassar, E. J. Immunol. Methods (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Quantitation of gold lymphocyte binding during chrysotherapy. Lorber, A., Wilcox, S., Leeb, J., Simon, T. J. Rheumatol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of human mast cell-mediated cytotoxicity by DIOC18 target cell labeling in flow cytometry. Ozdemir, O. J. Immunol. Methods (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Prospects for immunotherapeutic proteolytic antibodies. Zhou, Y.X., Karle, S., Taguchi, H., Planque, S., Nishiyama, Y., Paul, S. J. Immunol. Methods (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Sakurai, T., Fujita, T., Kono, I., Kabashima, T., Yamane, K., Tamura, N., Kashiwagi, H. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Myelodysplastic syndromes. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Noël, P., Solberg, L.A. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Monoclonal antibody CRA against a fraction of actin from cress roots recognizes its antigen in different plant species. Koropp, K., Volkmann, D. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. A phase I trial of weekly paclitaxel, 13- cis-retinoic acid, and interferon alpha in patients with prostate cancer and other advanced malignancies. Thalasila, A., Poplin, E., Shih, J., Dvorzhinski, D., Capanna, T., Doyle-Lindrud, S., Beers, S., Goodin, S., Rubin, E., DiPaola, R.S. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Computed radiography angiography using storage phosphor imaging plates: eight year's experience. Kudo, S., Kato, A., Uchino, A., Matsuo, Y., Mizuguchi, M., Fukahori, T., Matsumoto, K., Shimizu, T. Radiation medicine. (1997) [Pubmed]
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