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Gene Review

CRV  -  Retinopathy, vascular, with cerebral and...

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of CRV

  • Here, we present the genome sequence, with analysis, of a poxvirus infecting Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) (crocodilepox virus; CRV) [1].
  • CRV shares notable genomic similarities with molluscum contagiosum virus, including genes found only in these two viruses [1].
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CRV is quite distinct from other ChPVs, representing a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and it lacks recognizable homologues of most ChPV genes involved in virulence and host range, including those involving interferon response, intracellular signaling, and host immune response modulation [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that low serum ALB enhances the permeability of the vessels in or around the optic disk and induces subclinical optic disk edema, which is characterized by late fluorescein staining and high blood flow velocities in the CRA and CRV [2].
  • Therefore we measured the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (HVR) and hyperoxic hypercapnia in 12 pairs of identical and 12 pairs of nonidentical twins [3].

High impact information on CRV

  • This hypervariable region (alpha-globin 3' HVR) is composed of an array of 17-bp tandem repeats, the number of which differs considerably (70-450) from one allele to another [4].
  • At reduced stringency, a probe to the 3' HVR detects a new family of multiallelic loci that will be of value in the study of human genetics [4].
  • The higher genetic variability of Ewondo and U.S. Blacks was also shown by the ApoB 3' HVR allele-frequency spectra [5].
  • Use of specific minisatellite DNA probes (YNH 24, H-RAS, and 3' HVR) revealed the exclusive presence of third-party (neither donor nor recipient) restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLP) in both peripheral blood and marrow [6].
  • HCV quasispecies populations were separated by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method targeted to the HVR [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of CRV

  • To examine the relationship between sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hormonal activity in acromegaly, we performed sleep studies and examined ventilatory responses to hypoxia at resting CO2 (HVR) and 8 mm Hg above resting CO2 (HHVR) and hypercapnia (HCVR) in 54 patients with acromegaly who also underwent detailed endocrine evaluation [8].
  • BACKGROUND: It has previously been shown that fenoterol, a beta 2 adrenergic agonist, increases the ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) and hypercapnia (HCVR) in normal subjects [9].
  • Benzodiazepine have been shown to suppress ventilatory responses to hyperoxic hypercapnia (HCVR) and isocapnic HVR when taken parenterally [10].
  • This study investigated whether changes in GABA-mediated neurotransmission within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) contribute to the changes in breathing (resting ventilation and the acute HVR) that occur following exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) [11].
  • The effect of oral caffeine on resting ventilation (VE), ventilatory responsiveness to progressive hyperoxic hypercapnia (HCVR), isocapnic hypoxia (HVR), and moderate exercise (EVR) below the anaerobic threshold (AT) was examined in seven healthy adults [12].

Biological context of CRV

  • Fundamental to the success of the CRV is the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), which provides the necessary conditions for the crew to survive their return mission in a shirtsleeve environment [13].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate power spectral analysis (PSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) in children and adolescents with IDDM, its relationship with other measures of HRV and standard cardiovascular responses, and factors associated with reduced HVR [14].
  • Qualitative variation of HVR and core region was not related to CD4 cell count and depended on the initial complexity [15].
  • Increased HVR complexity was associated with higher CD4 cell count and HCV genotype 1 infection [15].
  • Linkage studies between the autosomal recessive type (ARPKD) and the 3' HVR of the alpha-globin gene cluster showed that the ARPKD and ADPKD are not allelic [16].

Anatomical context of CRV

  • The chemoreceptor activities were assessed by resting estimates of hypercapnic ventilatory response (delta VE/delta PCO2, HCVR) and hypoxic ventilatory response (delta VE/-delta SO2, HVR), respectively, where VE is minute ventilation and SO2 is oxygen saturation [17].
  • Only two of seven HVR variants present in the inoculum were found in HCV-infected immature dendritic cells [18].
  • We compared the hypoxic (HVR) and hypercapnic (HCVR) ventilatory responses, based on the rebreathing technique, before and during inspiratory flow-resistive loading in 17 quadriplegic patients with low cervical spinal cord transection and in 17 normal subjects [19].
  • To map the functional domain of allogeneic HLA-DR molecules involved in the recruitment of V beta 6+ T-cell specificities, CD4+ T cells from HLA-DRB1*0401+ donors were activated with allogeneic stimulators sharing either the first and second or the third HVR of the HLA-DRB1 gene [20].

Associations of CRV with chemical compounds

  • The HVR with theophylline was 0.46 +/- 0.08 for the 4-min protocol, 0.54 +/- 0.09 for the 6-min protocol, and 0.66 +/- 0.11 for the 15-min protocol, among which there were no significant differences [21].
  • In the HVR fenoterol treatment increased the P0.1 at 80% SaO2 from 0.90 (0.72) to 0.97 (0.55) kPa (p < 0.05) while the slopes of the response of P0.1 and VE were not changed [9].
  • HVR was also unrelated to maximal minute ventilation and ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2 [22].
  • In each subject plasma testosterone concentration, metabolic rate [O2 consumption (VO2) and CO2 production (VCO2)], minute ventilation (VE), and chemosensitivity [hypoxic (HVR) and hypercapnic (HCVR) ventilatory responses] were determined on and off hormone replacement [23].
  • In conclusion, sevoflurane anesthesia at 1.6% depresses HVR in women, but the biphasic response is maintained [24].

Other interactions of CRV

  • Distinct from CADASIL, hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS) is an autosomal dominant multi-infarct syndrome with systemic involvement [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CRV

  • When compared to the normocapnic group, hypercapnic patients were significantly heavier (with greater body surface area) and had significantly more severe restrictive and obstructive defects and impaired HVR and HCVR [26].
  • The HCVR and HVR were examined after the oral administration of fenoterol (15 mg/day) or placebo for seven days [9].
  • In order to determine the relationship between chronic hypercapnia and anthropomorphic data, pulmonary function tests and slopes of ventilatory responses to hypercapnia (HVCR) and hypoxia (HVR), we studied 55 patients with sleep apnea-hypopna syndrome (SAHS) [26].
  • Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify APOB sequences in hepatic DNA samples, we identified 22 different HVR alleles among 232 PDAY cases [27].
  • Steady state isocapnic HVR and hyperoxic HCVR were measured in 17 human volunteers [28].


  1. Genome of crocodilepox virus. Afonso, C.L., Tulman, E.R., Delhon, G., Lu, Z., Viljoen, G.J., Wallace, D.B., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Optic disk manifestation in diabetic eyes with low serum albumin: late fluorescein staining and high blood flow velocities in the optic disk. Fujioka, S., Karashima, K., Nishikawa, N., Saito, Y. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Hereditary aspects of decreased hypoxic response. Collins, D.D., Scoggin, C.H., Zwillich, C.W., Weil, J.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular characterisation of a hypervariable region downstream of the human alpha-globin gene cluster. Jarman, A.P., Nicholls, R.D., Weatherall, D.J., Clegg, J.B., Higgs, D.R. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic variation at the ApoB 3'HVR, D2S44, and D7S21 loci in the Ewondo Ethnic Group of Cameroon. Destro-Bisol, G., Presciuttini, S., d'Aloja, E., Dobosz, M., Spedini, G., Pascali, V.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Third-party-mediated graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease after T-cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation, as demonstrated by hypervariable DNA probes and HLA-DR polymorphism. Drobyski, W., Thibodeau, S., Truitt, R.L., Baxter-Lowe, L.A., Gorski, J., Jenkins, R., Gottschall, J., Ash, R.C. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Diversity of quasispecies in various disease stages of chronic hepatitis C virus infection and its significance in interferon treatment. Koizumi, K., Enomoto, N., Kurosaki, M., Murakami, T., Izumi, N., Marumo, F., Sato, C. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Central sleep apnea is associated with increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide and hypersecretion of growth hormone in patients with acromegaly. Grunstein, R.R., Ho, K.Y., Berthon-Jones, M., Stewart, D., Sullivan, C.E. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of fenoterol on ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Suzuki, S., Watanuki, Y., Yoshiike, Y., Okubo, T. Thorax (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of oral midazolam and diazepam on respiration in normal subjects. Mak, K.H., Wang, Y.T., Cheong, T.H., Poh, S.C. Eur. Respir. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract alters resting ventilation following exposure to chronic hypoxia in conscious rats. Chung, S., Ivy, G.O., Reid, S.G. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of caffeine on ventilatory responses to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and exercise in humans. D'Urzo, A.D., Jhirad, R., Jenne, H., Avendano, M.A., Rubinstein, I., D'Costa, M., Goldstein, R.S., Rubenstein, I. J. Appl. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Issues in life support and human factors in crew rescue from the ISS. Smart, K. Life support & biosphere science : international journal of earth space. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in children and adolescents with IDDM. Wawryk, A.M., Bates, D.J., Couper, J.J. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of CD4 cell counts on the genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Roque-Afonso, A.M., Robain, M., Simoneau, D., Rodriguez-Mathieu, P., Gigou, M., Meyer, L., Dussaix, E. J. Infect. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutations for the autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms of polycystic kidney disease are not allelic. Ramsay, M., Reeders, S.T., Thomson, P.D., Milner, L.S., Lazarou, L., Barratt, T.M., Yau, A., Lehmann, O.J., Jenkins, T. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Individual differences in breathlessness during exercise, as related to ventilatory chemosensitivities in humans. Takano, N., Inaishi, S., Zhang, Y. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Dendritic cell susceptibility to hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Navas, M.C., Fuchs, A., Schvoerer, E., Bohbot, A., Aubertin, A.M., Stoll-Keller, F. J. Med. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Ventilatory responses to chemosensory stimuli in quadriplegic subjects. Pokorski, M., Morikawa, T., Takaishi, S., Masuda, A., Ahn, B., Honda, Y. Eur. Respir. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. The T-cell receptor V beta 6 gene usage in alloreactive T-cell responses. Hu, W., Weyand, C.M., Goronzy, J.J. Hum. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Dependency on the rate of change in PaO2 of the ventilatory response to progressive hypoxia. Igarashi, T., Nishimura, M., Kobayashi, S., Miyamoto, K., Kawakami, Y. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Human ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia is unrelated to maximal aerobic capacity. Sheel, A.W., Koehle, M.S., Guenette, J.A., Foster, G.E., Sporer, B.C., Diep, T.T., McKenzie, D.C. J. Appl. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Influence of testosterone on ventilation and chemosensitivity in male subjects. White, D.P., Schneider, B.K., Santen, R.J., McDermott, M., Pickett, C.K., Zwillich, C.W., Weil, J.V. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Ventilatory responses to acute and sustained hypoxia during sevoflurane anesthesia in women. Sjögren, D., Lindahl, S.G., Gottlieb, C., Sollevi, A. Anesth. Analg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS). Jen, J., Cohen, A.H., Yue, Q., Stout, J.T., Vinters, H.V., Nelson, S., Baloh, R.W. Neurology (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Chronic hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Javaheri, S., Colangelo, G., Lacey, W., Gartside, P.S. Sleep. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. The human apolipoprotein B 3' hypervariable region: detection of eight new alleles and comparisons of allele frequencies in blacks and whites. Hixson, J.E., Powers, P.K., McMahan, C.A. Hum. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Hypoxic ventilatory response predicts the extent of maximal breath-holds in man. Feiner, J.R., Bickler, P.E., Severinghaus, J.W. Respiration physiology. (1995) [Pubmed]
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