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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CTCFL  -  CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BORIS, Brother of the regulator of imprinted sites, CCCTC-binding factor, CT27, CTCF paralog, ...
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Disease relevance of CTCFL

  • Thus, CTCFL and OCT4 resemble cancer-testis antigens in being selectively hypomethylated and expressed in male germ cells but differ in lacking significant reexpression and hypomethylation in prostate carcinomas [1].
  • In prostate and bladder carcinoma cell lines and cancer tissues expression remained largely unchanged, but individual prostate carcinomas showed modestly increased CTCFL expression compared to normal tissues [1].
  • Preliminary experiments indicated that NY-ESO-1 expression coincided with derepression of BORIS in cultured lung cancer cells [2].
  • Indeed, infection of normal fibroblasts with anti-BORIS short hairpin RNA retroviruses before treatment with 5-azadC blocked reactivation of MAGE-A1 [3].
  • In the present investigation, we identified CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), the multivalent 11-zinc-finger nuclear factor, as a regulator that favors a particular local chromatin conformation of the human retinoblastoma gene promoter [4].

High impact information on CTCFL


Chemical compound and disease context of CTCFL

  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed robust, coincident induction of BORIS and NY-ESO-1 expression in lung cancer cells, but not normal human bronchial epithelial cells following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azadC), Depsipeptide FK228 (DP), or sequential 5-azadC/DP exposure under clinically relevant conditions [2].
  • However, the diagnosis of tuberculosis continues to pose serious problems, mainly because of difficulties in differentiating between patients with active tuberculosis and those with healed lesions, normal mycobacterium boris BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccinated individuals, and unvaccinated Manteux positives [6].

Biological context of CTCFL


Anatomical context of CTCFL


Associations of CTCFL with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CTCFL

  • Because BORIS bears the same DNA-binding domain that CTCF employs for recognition of methylation marks in soma, BORIS is a candidate protein for the elusive epigenetic reprogramming factor acting in the male germ line [8].

Regulatory relationships of CTCFL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTCFL


  1. Epigenetic control of CTCFL/BORIS and OCT4 expression in urogenital malignancies. Hoffmann, M.J., M??ller, M., Engers, R., Schulz, W.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Reciprocal binding of CTCF and BORIS to the NY-ESO-1 promoter coincides with derepression of this cancer-testis gene in lung cancer cells. Hong, J.A., Kang, Y., Abdullaev, Z., Flanagan, P.T., Pack, S.D., Fischette, M.R., Adnani, M.T., Loukinov, D.I., Vatolin, S., Risinger, J.I., Custer, M., Chen, G.A., Zhao, M., Nguyen, D.M., Barrett, J.C., Lobanenkov, V.V., Schrump, D.S. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Conditional expression of the CTCF-paralogous transcriptional factor BORIS in normal cells results in demethylation and derepression of MAGE-A1 and reactivation of other cancer-testis genes. Vatolin, S., Abdullaev, Z., Pack, S.D., Flanagan, P.T., Custer, M., Loukinov, D.I., Pugacheva, E., Hong, J.A., Morse, H., Schrump, D.S., Risinger, J.I., Barrett, J.C., Lobanenkov, V.V. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Epigenetic regulation of the human retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene promoter by CTCF. De La Rosa-Velázquez, I.A., Rincón-Arano, H., Benítez-Bribiesca, L., Recillas-Targa, F. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of the Vertebrate Insulator Protein CTCF-Binding Sites in the Human Genome. Kim, T.H., Abdullaev, Z.K., Smith, A.D., Ching, K.A., Loukinov, D.I., Green, R.D., Zhang, M.Q., Lobanenkov, V.V., Ren, B. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Diagnosis of tuberculosis: available technologies, limitations, and possibilities. Garg, S.K., Tiwari, R.P., Tiwari, D., Singh, R., Malhotra, D., Ramnani, V.K., Prasad, G.B., Chandra, R., Fraziano, M., Colizzi, V., Bisen, P.S. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The Testis-Specific Factor CTCFL Cooperates with the Protein Methyltransferase PRMT7 in H19 Imprinting Control Region Methylation. Jelinic, P., Stehle, J.C., Shaw, P. PLoS Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. BORIS, a novel male germ-line-specific protein associated with epigenetic reprogramming events, shares the same 11-zinc-finger domain with CTCF, the insulator protein involved in reading imprinting marks in the soma. Loukinov, D.I., Pugacheva, E., Vatolin, S., Pack, S.D., Moon, H., Chernukhin, I., Mannan, P., Larsson, E., Kanduri, C., Vostrov, A.A., Cui, H., Niemitz, E.L., Rasko, J.E., Docquier, F.M., Kistler, M., Breen, J.J., Zhuang, Z., Quitschke, W.W., Renkawitz, R., Klenova, E.M., Feinberg, A.P., Ohlsson, R., Morse, H.C., Lobanenkov, V.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Elicitation of T cell responses to histologically unrelated tumors by immunization with the novel cancer-testis antigen, brother of the regulator of imprinted sites. Ghochikyan, A., Mkrtichyan, M., Loukinov, D., Mamikonyan, G., Pack, S.D., Movsesyan, N., Ichim, T.E., Cribbs, D.H., Lobanenkov, V.V., Agadjanyan, M.G. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. The Potential of BORIS Detected in the Leukocytes of Breast Cancer Patients as an Early Marker of Tumorigenesis. D'Arcy, V., Abdullaev, Z.K., Pore, N., Docquier, F., Torrano, V., Chernukhin, I., Smart, M., Farrar, D., Metodiev, M., Fernandez, N., Richard, C., Delgado, M.D., Lobanenkov, V., Klenova, E. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Pax6 Regulation in Retinal Cells by CCCTC Binding Factor. Li, T., Lu, Z., Lu, L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of thyroid hormone receptor silencing function by co-repressors and a synergizing transcription factor. Lutz, M., Baniahmad, A., Renkawitz, R. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. On the beginnings of somatic cell hybridization: Boris Ephrussi and chromosome transplantation. Zallen, D.T., Burian, R.M. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
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