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Chemical Compound Review

Retinamine     (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9- (2,6,6...

Synonyms: AC1L9GKP, 43219-27-8, trans-Retinylamine
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Disease relevance of retinal


Psychiatry related information on retinal

  • RESULTS: Retinal screening in patients with type 2 diabetes is an effective intervention; however, the risk reduction varies dramatically by age and level of glycemic control [6].
  • BACKGROUND: Retinal sensitivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and response to light therapy [7].
  • RESULTS: Retinal detachment occurred in three of 53 patients in the intravitreal therapy group, one of 20 patients receiving oral maintenance therapy and 21 of 113 patients receiving intravenous maintenance therapy [8].

High impact information on retinal


Chemical compound and disease context of retinal


Biological context of retinal

  • RESULTS: Retinal vascular permeability was significantly higher in diabetic rats (median, 1.09 arbitrary unit) compared with control rats (median, 0.69 arbitrary unit) (p < 0.05) [19].
  • The EP enhancer binds efficiently, as revealed by southwestern experiments, to a 110 kDa protein present in neuroretina cells but not in Quail Embryos Cells and Retinal Pigmented Epithelium which do not express the P0-initiated mRNAs [20].
  • RESULTS: Retinal ischemia led to reductions in thickness and cell number, principally in the inner retinal layers (39% to 80%) and to a lesser extent in the outer retinal layers (26% to 45%) [21].
  • METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg and maintaining that level for 45 minutes [22].
  • PURPOSE: Retinal ganglion cells die by apoptosis during development and after trauma such as axonal damage and exposure to excitotoxins [23].

Anatomical context of retinal


Associations of retinal with other chemical compounds


Gene context of retinal

  • RESULTS: Retinal ganglion cells in the nNOS(-/-) mouse were relatively resistant to gp120, manifesting attenuation of gp120-induced injury compared with wild-type mice [33].
  • METHODS: Retinal morphometry was performed at the light microscopic level in caspase-3 mutant mice from PN0 through PN23, and in rd-1/caspase-3 double mutant mice at PN14, -16, and -18 [34].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Retinal degeneration in the Rpe65(-/-) mice is slowly progressive [35].
  • METHODS: Retinal development in wild-type, NT-4/5 knockout (KO), and NT-4/5:BDNF double-KO mice was histologically examined from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P90 [36].
  • METHODS: Retinal vascular development was analyzed in 150 eNOS+/+ and eNOS-/- mice ranging from 1 day to 6 months old by using a combination of morphometric and biochemical approaches [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of retinal


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  8. Retinal detachment in cytomegalovirus retinitis: intravenous versus intravitreal therapy. Young, S., McCluskey, P., Minassian, D.C., Joblin, P., Jones, C., Coroneo, M.T., Lightman, S. Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Failure to Maintain Eye-Specific Segregation in nob, a Mutant with Abnormally Patterned Retinal Activity. Demas, J., Sagdullaev, B.T., Green, E., Jaubert-Miazza, L., McCall, M.A., Gregg, R.G., Wong, R.O., Guido, W. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
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  12. Inhibition of Caspase-1/Interleukin-1{beta} Signaling Prevents Degeneration of Retinal Capillaries in Diabetes and Galactosemia. Vincent, J.A., Mohr, S. Diabetes (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. G-protein-coupled Receptor Rhodopsin Regulates the Phosphorylation of Retinal Insulin Receptor. Rajala, A., Anderson, R.E., Ma, J.X., Lem, J., Al-Ubaidi, M.R., Rajala, R.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Angiographic and histological evaluation of porcine retinal vascular damage and protection with perfluorocarbons after massive air embolism. Herren, J.I., Kunzelman, K.S., Vocelka, C., Cochran, R.P., Spiess, B.D. Stroke (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Retinal blood flow changes in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and no diabetic retinopathy. Bursell, S.E., Clermont, A.C., Kinsley, B.T., Simonson, D.C., Aiello, L.M., Wolpert, H.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Memantine is neuroprotective in a rat model of pressure-induced retinal ischemia. Lagrèze, W.A., Knörle, R., Bach, M., Feuerstein, T.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Long-term Retinal Toxicity of Intravitreal Commercially Available Preserved Triamcinolone Acetonide (Kenalog) in Rabbit Eyes. Albini, T.A., Abd-El-Barr, M.M., Carvounis, P.E., Iyer, M.N., Lakhanpal, R.R., Pennesi, M.E., Chevez-Barrios, P., Wu, S.M., Holz, E.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modifiable risk factors for age-related maculopathy and cataract: the POLA Study. Delcourt, C., Carrière, I., Delage, M., Barberger-Gateau, P., Schalch, W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase is associated with retinal vascular permeability in early diabetic rats. Takeda, M., Mori, F., Yoshida, A., Takamiya, A., Nakagomi, S., Sato, E., Kiyama, H. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Involvement of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase in the Pax-6 gene regulation in neuroretina. Plaza, S., Aumercier, M., Bailly, M., Dozier, C., Saule, S. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Intravitreal injection of ganglioside GM1 after ischemia reduces retinal damage in rats. Mohand-Said, S., Weber, M., Hicks, D., Dreyfus, H., Sahel, J.A. Stroke (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Neuroprotective effects of D-allose against retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hirooka, K., Miyamoto, O., Jinming, P., Du, Y., Itano, T., Baba, T., Tokuda, M., Shiraga, F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Experimental induction of retinal ganglion cell death in adult mice. Li, Y., Schlamp, C.L., Nickells, R.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Glyoxalase I Is Critical for Human Retinal Capillary Pericyte Survival under Hyperglycemic Conditions. Miller, A.G., Smith, D.G., Bhat, M., Nagaraj, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Ocular hyperperfusion following onset of intensified insulin therapy is inversely correlated with plasma endothelin-1 in Type I diabetes. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, G., Kautzky-Willer, A., Kiss, B., Roden, M., Wagner, O., Pleiner, J., Wolzt, M., Schmetterer, L. Diabetologia (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Role of Peripherin/rds in Vertebrate Photoreceptor Architecture and Inherited Retinal Degenerations. Goldberg, A.F. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of combinational coding by homeodomain and bHLH transcription factors in retinal cell fate specification. Wang, J.C., Harris, W.A. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Functional Characterization and Molecular Cloning of the K+-dependent Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger in Intact Retinal Cone Photoreceptors. Paillart, C., Winkfein, R.J., Schnetkamp, P.P., Korenbrot, J.I. J. Gen. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of PKCbeta on retinal oxygenation response in experimental diabetes. Luan, H., Leitges, M., Gupta, R.R., Pacheco, D., Seidner, A., Liggett, J., Ito, Y., Kowluru, R., Berkowitz, B.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Elevated retinal zeaxanthin and prevention of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in quail. Thomson, L.R., Toyoda, Y., Langner, A., Delori, F.C., Garnett, K.M., Craft, N., Nichols, C.R., Cheng, K.M., Dorey, C.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Intravitreal pharmacokinetics and retinal concentrations of ganciclovir and foscarnet after intravitreal administration in rabbits. López-Cortés, L.F., Pastor-Ramos, M.T., Ruiz-Valderas, R., Cordero, E., Uceda-Montañés, A., Claro-Cala, C.M., Lucero-Muñoz, M.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Caspase activation in an experimental model of retinal detachment. Zacks, D.N., Hänninen, V., Pantcheva, M., Ezra, E., Grosskreutz, C., Miller, J.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. The contribution of various NOS gene products to HIV-1 coat protein (gp120)-mediated retinal ganglion cell injury. Dreyer, E.B., Zurakowski, D., Gorla, M., Vorwerk, C.K., Lipton, S.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Caspase-3 in postnatal retinal development and degeneration. Zeiss, C.J., Neal, J., Johnson, E.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Retinal degeneration and RPE transplantation in Rpe65(-/-) mice. Gouras, P., Kong, J., Tsang, S.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Role of neurotrophin-4/5 in neural cell death during retinal development and ischemic retinal injury in vivo. Harada, C., Harada, T., Quah, H.M., Namekata, K., Yoshida, K., Ohno, S., Tanaka, K., Parada, L.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Normal vascular development in mice deficient in endothelial NO synthase: possible role of neuronal NO synthase. Al-Shabrawey, M., El-Remessy, A., Gu, X., Brooks, S.S., Hamed, M.S., Huang, P., Caldwell, R.B. Mol. Vis. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  41. Relationship between Visual Field Sensitivity and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography. Ajtony, C., Balla, Z., Somoskeoy, S., Kovacs, B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
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