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Gene Review

Elavl1  -  ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision)...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2410055N02Rik, ELAV-like protein 1, Elav-like generic protein, Elra, HUR, ...
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Disease relevance of Elavl1

  • These results define iNOS and HuR as critical players in cytokine-induced cachexia, establishing them as potential therapeutic targets [1].
  • HuR, an RNA-binding protein that regulates both the stability and cellular movement of ARE-containing mRNAs, interacts and stabilizes the p21cip1 message under UV stress in human RKO colorectal carcinoma cells [2].
  • We sought to identify collections of HuR-regulated mRNAs in colon cancer cells by systematic, cDNA array-based assessment of gene expression in three systems of varying complexity [3].
  • The human neuroblastoma apoptosis-related RNA-binding protein NAPOR is an ELAV-like RNA-binding protein with three characteristic RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) [4].

High impact information on Elavl1

  • By using a model system of ARE dysfunction, we demonstrate that HuR does not alter the accumulation of target mRNAs in the absence of the destabilizing functions of Tristetraprolin but synergizes with the translational silencer TIA-1 to reduce the translation of cytokine mRNAs [5].
  • HuR is an RNA binding protein with an alleged role in the posttranscriptional activation of inflammatory mRNAs bearing AU-rich elements (AREs) [5].
  • In macrophages, HuR overexpression induced the translational silencing of specific cytokine mRNAs despite positive or nominal effects on their corresponding turnover [5].
  • We found that, in hepatocytes, AICAR increases HuR binding to cyclin A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) as well as the expression and stability of this mRNA and that SAM blocks these events [6].
  • S-adenosylmethionine regulates cytoplasmic HuR via AMP-activated kinase [6].

Biological context of Elavl1


Anatomical context of Elavl1


Associations of Elavl1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Elavl1

  • After chronic ethanol feeding, HuR binding to the TNFalpha A + U-rich element was increased by more than 5-fold at baseline and in response to LPS, compared with pair-fed controls [10].
  • We tested if HuR binds the interleukin-2 mRNA and whether such binding is related to CD28-mediated stabilization of the mRNA [16].
  • RhoB mRNA is stabilized by HuR after UV light [17].
  • Interrupting the TRN2-HuR complex using RNA interference against TRN2, or the cell-permeable peptides (AP) fused to the HuR nucleocytoplasmic shuttling domain (HNS), enhanced the efficiency of myofiber formation [18].

Regulatory relationships of Elavl1

  • Moreover, we show that HuR regulates iNOS expression in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner [1].

Other interactions of Elavl1

  • NF-kappa B-mediated MyoD decay during muscle wasting requires nitric oxide synthase mRNA stabilization, HuR protein, and nitric oxide release [1].
  • Finally, we compared AUF1 and HuR expression with accumulation of one common target mRNA, c-myc [19].
  • The neuron-specific ELAV-like HuB, HuC, and HuD RNA-binding proteins act posttranscriptionally by binding to adenine- and uridine-rich elements (AREs) in the 3' untranslated region of a set of target mRNAs, and by increasing mRNA cytoplasmic stability and/or rate of translation [20].
  • Binding of HuR to the mouse interleukin-2 mRNA has not been studied [16].
  • Therefore, we propose a model in which UVL induces stress-activated signal transduction leading to nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of HuR and subsequent stabilization of RhoB mRNA [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Elavl1


  1. NF-kappa B-mediated MyoD decay during muscle wasting requires nitric oxide synthase mRNA stabilization, HuR protein, and nitric oxide release. Di Marco, S., Mazroui, R., Dallaire, P., Chittur, S., Tenenbaum, S.A., Radzioch, D., Marette, A., Gallouzi, I.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. RNAi-mediated HuR depletion leads to the inhibition of muscle cell differentiation. van der Giessen, K., Di-Marco, S., Clair, E., Gallouzi, I.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Global analysis of HuR-regulated gene expression in colon cancer systems of reducing complexity. López de Silanes, I., Fan, J., Galbán, C.J., Spencer, R.G., Becker, K.G., Gorospe, M. Gene Expr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and expression of Napor/CUG-BP2 in embryo development. Choi, D.K., Yoo, K.W., Hong, S.K., Rhee, M., Sakaki, Y., Kim, C.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. HuR as a negative posttranscriptional modulator in inflammation. Katsanou, V., Papadaki, O., Milatos, S., Blackshear, P.J., Anderson, P., Kollias, G., Kontoyiannis, D.L. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. S-adenosylmethionine regulates cytoplasmic HuR via AMP-activated kinase. Martínez-Chantar, M.L., Vázquez-Chantada, M., Garnacho, M., Latasa, M.U., Varela-Rey, M., Dotor, J., Santamaria, M., Martínez-Cruz, L.A., Parada, L.A., Lu, S.C., Mato, J.M. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of the 5' end of the mouse Elavl1 (mHuA) gene reveals a transcriptional regulatory element and evidence for conserved genomic organization. King, P.H., Fuller, J.J., Nabors, L.B., Detloff, P.J. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The RNA-binding protein HuR binds to acetylcholinesterase transcripts and regulates their expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells. Deschênes-Furry, J., Bélanger, G., Mwanjewe, J., Lunde, J.A., Parks, R.J., Perrone-Bizzozero, N., Jasmin, B.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Mouse chromosomal locations of nine genes encoding homologs of human paraneoplastic neurologic disorder antigens. Fletcher, C.F., Okano, H.J., Gilbert, D.J., Yang, Y., Yang, C., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Darnell, R.B. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Chronic ethanol exposure increases the binding of HuR to the TNFalpha 3'-untranslated region in macrophages. McMullen, M.R., Cocuzzi, E., Hatzoglou, M., Nagy, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. ELAV protein HuA (HuR) can redistribute between nucleus and cytoplasm and is upregulated during serum stimulation and T cell activation. Atasoy, U., Watson, J., Patel, D., Keene, J.D. J. Cell. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Apigenin prevents UVB-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression: coupled mRNA stabilization and translational inhibition. Tong, X., Van Dross, R.T., Abu-Yousif, A., Morrison, A.R., Pelling, J.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. The 3' untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA is a target of the mRNA-stabilizing factor HuR. Dean, J.L., Wait, R., Mahtani, K.R., Sully, G., Clark, A.R., Saklatvala, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Impaired gametogenesis in mice that overexpress the RNA-binding protein HuR. Levadoux-Martin, M., Gouble, A., Jégou, B., Vallet-Erdtmann, V., Auriol, J., Mercier, P., Morello, D. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Androgen regulates the level and subcellular distribution of the AU-rich ribonucleic acid-binding protein HuR both in vitro and in vivo. Sheflin, L.G., Zhang, W., Spaulding, S.W. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Selective cytoplasmic translocation of HuR and site-specific binding to the interleukin-2 mRNA are not sufficient for CD28-mediated stabilization of the mRNA. Seko, Y., Azmi, H., Fariss, R., Ragheb, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. RhoB mRNA is stabilized by HuR after UV light. Westmark, C.J., Bartleson, V.B., Malter, J.S. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Involvement of transportin 2-mediated HuR import in muscle cell differentiation. van der Giessen, K., Gallouzi, I.E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Synchronous and regulated expression of two AU-binding proteins, AUF1 and HuR, throughout murine development. Gouble, A., Morello, D. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in learning by the neuronal ELAV-like mRNA-stabilizing proteins. Quattrone, A., Pascale, A., Nogues, X., Zhao, W., Gusev, P., Pacini, A., Alkon, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Developmental expression of AUF1 and HuR, two c-myc mRNA binding proteins. Lafon, I., Carballès, F., Brewer, G., Poiret, M., Morello, D. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
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