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Gene Review

Il16  -  interleukin 16

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Pro-interleukin-16
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Disease relevance of Il16


High impact information on Il16


Biological context of Il16


Anatomical context of Il16


Associations of Il16 with chemical compounds

  • The relevance of the priming effect associated with sensitization for IL-16 production and storage was confirmed in vivo by serotonin airway challenge of OVA-sensitized mice, resulting in rapid secretion of IL-16 into BAL fluid [11].
  • This suggests that the initial response to allergen (sensitization) results in synthesis but not secretion of IL-16 [11].
  • Consistent with the microarray reports, pro-IL-16 mRNA levels fell within 4 h of activation, and this response is inhibited by cyclosporin A [9].
  • Exposure of these cells to IL-16 induces expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos, via a signaling pathway that involves tyrosine phosphorylation [13].
  • IL-16 production was induced in the epidermis and dermis during the elicitation phase of the CHS response with trinitrochlorobenzene [14].

Enzymatic interactions of Il16

  • Pro-IL-16 comprises a C-terminal cytokine domain and an N-terminal prodomain that are cleaved by caspase-3 [9].

Regulatory relationships of Il16


Other interactions of Il16

  • We determined that ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice have an increase in systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, and that serum or BAL fluid stimulation of bronchial epithelial cells results in production of IL-16 that is subsequently secreted only following serotonin stimulation [11].
  • The mechanism for IL-16 production was shown to be caspase-3-dependent, and serotonin-induced secretion of IL-16 required binding of the serotonin type 2 receptor [11].
  • In the present study, we observed increased S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 mRNA expression in IL-16 null mice, but basal expression and activation-dependent regulation of p27(Kip1) were no different from wild-type mice [9].
  • Firstly, it appears that thoracic lymph node cells isolated from in vivo IL-16-treated ovalbumin-challenged animals produce less IL-4 (77%) and IL-5 (85%) upon antigenic re-stimulation, when compared to vehicle-treated mice [3].
  • CONCLUSION: The three cytokines IL-16, IL-17, and IL-18 were detected at the fetomaternal interface with a tissue specific, stage-dependent distribution [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Il16


  1. Interleukin 16 is up-regulated in Crohn's disease and participates in TNBS colitis in mice. Keates, A.C., Castagliuolo, I., Cruickshank, W.W., Qiu, B., Arseneau, K.O., Brazer, W., Kelly, C.P. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. IL-16 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in rheumatoid synovitis. Klimiuk, P.A., Goronzy, J.J., Weyand, C.M. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Exogenous interleukin-16 inhibits antigen-induced airway hyper-reactivity, eosinophilia and Th2-type cytokine production in mice. De Bie, J.J., Jonker, E.H., Henricks, P.A., Hoevenaars, J., Little, F.F., Cruikshank, W.W., Nijkamp, F.P., Van Oosterhout, A.J. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Interleukin 16: implications for CD4 functions and HIV-1 progression. Center, D.M., Kornfeld, H., Ryan, T.C., Cruikshank, W.W. Immunol. Today (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB binding protein/p300, control the induction of the interleukin 16 promoter in T lymphocytes. Bannert, N., Avots, A., Baier, M., Serfling, E., Kurth, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Human and mouse mast cells use the tetraspanin CD9 as an alternate interleukin-16 receptor. Qi, J.C., Wang, J., Mandadi, S., Tanaka, K., Roufogalis, B.D., Madigan, M.C., Lai, K., Yan, F., Chong, B.H., Stevens, R.L., Krilis, S.A. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of IL-16 in delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Yoshimoto, T., Wang, C.R., Yoneto, T., Matsuzawa, A., Cruikshank, W.W., Nariuchi, H. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Conservation of structure and function between human and murine IL-16. Keane, J., Nicoll, J., Kim, S., Wu, D.M., Cruikshank, W.W., Brazer, W., Natke, B., Zhang, Y., Center, D.M., Kornfeld, H. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Pro-IL-16 regulation in activated murine CD4+ lymphocytes. Ren, F., Zhan, X., Martens, G., Lee, J., Center, D., Hanson, S.K., Kornfeld, H. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of interleukin-16 and its precursor on T lymphocyte activation and growth. Wilson, K.C., Center, D.M., Cruikshank, W.W. Growth Factors (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced synthesis of interleukin-16 in airway epithelial cells: priming for serotonin stimulation. Little, F.F., Lynch, E., Fine, G., Center, D.M., Cruikshank, W.W. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Interleukin-16 supports the migration of Langerhans cells, partly in a CD4-independent way. Stoitzner, P., Ratzinger, G., Koch, F., Janke, K., Schöller, T., Kaser, A., Tilg, H., Cruikshank, W.W., Fritsch, P., Romani, N. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Neuronal interleukin-16 (NIL-16): a dual function PDZ domain protein. Kurschner, C., Yuzaki, M. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The role of interleukin-16 in murine contact hypersensitivity. Masuda, K., Katoh, N., Soga, F., Kishimoto, S. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cutting edge: IL-16/CD4 preferentially induces Th1 cell migration: requirement of CCR5. Lynch, E.A., Heijens, C.A., Horst, N.F., Center, D.M., Cruikshank, W.W. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Demonstration of the presence of IL-16, IL-17 and IL-18 at the murine fetomaternal interface during murine pregnancy. Ostojic, S., Dubanchet, S., Chaouat, G., Abdelkarim, M., Truyens, C., Capron, F. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of interleukin 16 from nonhuman primates and from the mouse. Bannert, N., Adler, H.S., Werner, A., Baier, M., Kurth, R. Immunogenetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. CD8+ T lymphocytes regulate the arteriogenic response to ischemia by infiltrating the site of collateral vessel development and recruiting CD4+ mononuclear cells through the expression of interleukin-16. Stabile, E., Kinnaird, T., la Sala, A., Hanson, S.K., Watkins, C., Campia, U., Shou, M., Zbinden, S., Fuchs, S., Kornfeld, H., Epstein, S.E., Burnett, M.S. Circulation (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Involvement of IL-16 in the induction of airway hyper-responsiveness and up-regulation of IgE in a murine model of allergic asthma. Hessel, E.M., Cruikshank, W.W., Van Ark, I., De Bie, J.J., Van Esch, B., Hofman, G., Nijkamp, F.P., Center, D.M., Van Oosterhout, A.J. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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