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Gene Review

IL16  -  interleukin 16

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ16806, FLJ42735, HsT19289, IL-16, LCF, ...
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Disease relevance of IL16


Psychiatry related information on IL16

  • Our results show that LT-NPs manifest increased CTL activity and IL-16 expression and decreased expression of TGF-beta1 and CXCR4 compared to NPs, regardless of recreational drug usage [6].
  • In the present study the presence of psychomotor agitation diagnosed by means of LCF (score 4 = confused-agitated) at the admission time in rehabilitation predicted a statistically significant better outcome at the discharge time in comparison with patients without agitation [7].

High impact information on IL16


Chemical compound and disease context of IL16


Biological context of IL16


Anatomical context of IL16


Associations of IL16 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of IL16

  • In support of this conclusion, IL-16 bound to CD9-expressing CHO cell transfectants [14].
  • Taken altogether, these data suggest that pro-IL-16 forms a complex with GABPbeta1 and HDAC3 in suppressing the transcription of Skp2 [21].

Regulatory relationships of IL16

  • Anti-CD9 mAbs also inhibited the IL-16-mediated activation of nontransformed human cord blood-derived MCs and mouse bone marrow-derived MCs by 50% to 60% [14].
  • Storage and release of IL-16 was further enhanced during final DC maturation induced by additional 3-day culture with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and monocyte-conditioned medium [3].
  • In concert with its chemoattractant activity, LCF induces human T-lymphocyte expression of interleukin 2 receptor [15].
  • First, the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A blocked LCF-induced p56lck activation but had no effect on the LCF-induced motile response [20].
  • IL-16 down-modulated the expression of thioredoxin and up-regulated that of IL-16 and proapoptotic genes [5].

Other interactions of IL16

  • RESULTS: DCs generated from peripheral monocytes by 5-day culture in the presence of IL-4 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor acquired the capability to synthesize, store, and secrete IL-16 [3].
  • The smaller protein of 67 kDa (pro-IL-16) is expressed in cells of the immune system and contains three PDZ (postsynaptic density/disc large/zona occludens-1) domains, whereas the larger 141-kDa neuronal variant (npro-IL-16) has two additional PDZ domains in its N-terminal extension that interact with neuronal ion channels [16].
  • The synthesis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy cultures of IL-7, IL-16 and IL-18 is significantly associated with acute rejection in kidney transplants [22].
  • RESULTS: A significantly increased IL-16 level in RA patients at disease onset [median (25th-75th percentile) 45.2 (37.7-82.4) pg/ml] was observed compared to both controls [30.4 (24.4-37.0) pg/ml, p = 0.0008], and to patients with undifferentiated arthritis [29.0 (21.5-52.4) pg/ml; p = 0.005] [23].
  • Interleukin-16 (IL-16) can cause the high affinity of IL-2 receptors on CD4+ cells and is chemotaxis to Th1 cells and CD4+ T cells [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL16


  1. Nef triggers a transcriptional program in T cells imitating single-signal T cell activation and inducing HIV virulence mediators. Simmons, A., Aluvihare, V., McMichael, A. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Association of allergic contact dermatitis with a promoter polymorphism in the IL16 gene. Reich, K., Westphal, G., König, I.R., Mössner, R., Krüger, U., Ziegler, A., Neumann, C., Schnuch, A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The maturation-dependent production of interleukin-16 is impaired in monocyte-derived dendritic cells from atopic dermatitis patients but is restored by inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Reich, K., Hugo, S., Middel, P., Blaschke, V., Heine, A., Neumann, C. Exp. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. IL-16 represses HIV-1 promoter activity. Maciaszek, J.W., Parada, N.A., Cruikshank, W.W., Center, D.M., Kornfeld, H., Viglianti, G.A. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. IL-16 is critical for Tropheryma whipplei replication in Whipple's disease. Desnues, B., Raoult, D., Mege, J.L. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Association of drug abuse with inhibition of HIV-1 immune responses: studies with long-term of HIV-1 non-progressors. Nair, M.P., Mahajan, S., Hewitt, R., Whitney, Z.R., Schwartz, S.A. J. Neuroimmunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Early clinical predictive factors during coma recovery. Formisano, R., Bivona, U., Penta, F., Giustini, M., Buzzi, M.G., Ciurli, P., Matteis, M., Barba, C., Della Vedova, C., Vinicola, V., Taggi, F. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Human CD4+ cells transfected with IL-16 cDNA are resistant to HIV-1 infection: inhibition of mRNA expression. Zhou, P., Goldstein, S., Devadas, K., Tewari, D., Notkins, A.L. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. CD4-mediated stimulation of human eosinophils: lymphocyte chemoattractant factor and other CD4-binding ligands elicit eosinophil migration. Rand, T.H., Cruikshank, W.W., Center, D.M., Weller, P.F. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of interleukin-16 by microglial cells in inflammatory, autoimmune, and degenerative lesions of the rat brain. Guo, L.H., Mittelbronn, M., Brabeck, C., Mueller, C.A., Schluesener, H.J. J. Neuroimmunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. IL-16- and other CD4 ligand-induced migration is dependent upon protein kinase C. Parada, N.A., Cruikshank, W.W., Danis, H.L., Ryan, T.C., Center, D.M. Cell. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Assignment of human interleukin 16 (IL16) to chromosome 15q26.3 by radiation hybrid mapping. Kim, H.S. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning, sequence, expression, and processing of the interleukin 16 precursor. Baier, M., Bannert, N., Werner, A., Lang, K., Kurth, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Human and mouse mast cells use the tetraspanin CD9 as an alternate interleukin-16 receptor. Qi, J.C., Wang, J., Mandadi, S., Tanaka, K., Roufogalis, B.D., Madigan, M.C., Lai, K., Yan, F., Chong, B.H., Stevens, R.L., Krilis, S.A. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular and functional analysis of a lymphocyte chemoattractant factor: association of biologic function with CD4 expression. Cruikshank, W.W., Center, D.M., Nisar, N., Wu, M., Natke, B., Theodore, A.C., Kornfeld, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. PDZ Domain-mediated interaction of interleukin-16 precursor proteins with myosin phosphatase targeting subunits. Bannert, N., Vollhardt, K., Asomuddinov, B., Haag, M., König, H., Norley, S., Kurth, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. GA-binding protein factors, in concert with the coactivator CREB binding protein/p300, control the induction of the interleukin 16 promoter in T lymphocytes. Bannert, N., Avots, A., Baier, M., Serfling, E., Kurth, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Structure of interleukin 16 resembles a PDZ domain with an occluded peptide binding site. Mühlhahn, P., Zweckstetter, M., Georgescu, J., Ciosto, C., Renner, C., Lanzendörfer, M., Lang, K., Ambrosius, D., Baier, M., Kurth, R., Holak, T.A. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. A role for IL-16 in the cross-talk between dendritic cells and T cells. Kaser, A., Dunzendorfer, S., Offner, F.A., Ryan, T., Schwabegger, A., Cruikshank, W.W., Wiedermann, C.J., Tilg, H. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The CD4-associated tyrosine kinase p56lck is required for lymphocyte chemoattractant factor-induced T lymphocyte migration. Ryan, T.C., Cruikshank, W.W., Kornfeld, H., Collins, T.L., Center, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Pro-IL-16 recruits histone deacetylase 3 to the Skp2 core promoter through interaction with transcription factor GABP. Zhang, Y., Tuzova, M., Xiao, Z.X., Cruikshank, W.W., Center, D.M. J. Immunol. (2008) [Pubmed]
  22. The synthesis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy cultures of IL-7, IL-16 and IL-18 is significantly associated with acute rejection in kidney transplants. de Oliveira, J.G., Xavier, P.D., Sampaio, S.M., Tavares, I.S., Mendes, A.A. Nephron (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Enhanced concentrations of interleukin 16 are associated with joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lard, L.R., Roep, B.O., Toes, R.E., Huizinga, T.W. J. Rheumatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin-12 and interleukin-16 in periodontal disease. Tsai, I.S., Tsai, C.C., Ho, Y.P., Ho, K.Y., Wu, Y.M., Hung, C.C. Cytokine (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of a CD4 domain required for interleukin-16 binding and lymphocyte activation. Liu, Y., Cruikshank, W.W., O'Loughlin, T., O'Reilly, P., Center, D.M., Kornfeld, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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