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Gene Review

Ly9  -  lymphocyte antigen 9

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI893573, CD229, Cell surface molecule Ly-9, Lgp100, Ly-9, ...
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Disease relevance of Ly9


High impact information on Ly9


Biological context of Ly9

  • In the BXH strains the percentage of genetic variation accounted for by Ly-9 segregation was reduced to 46%, while 54% was accounted for by other genetic factors [4].
  • A mouse monoclonal cell line (20-1.5) was produced by the cell fusion method and the antibody secreted by this line defined the Ly-9.2 specificity--the reciprocal specificity to that previously identified as the Lgp 100 or the T100 molecule [5].
  • Studies of five recombinant inbred strains and (C57BL/6 X M. spretus) F1 X C57BL/6 backcross mice demonstrated that these RFLPs were allelic and that Spna-1 is closely linked to Ly-9 and Ly-17 on the distal region of chromosome 1 [6].
  • Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the Ly9 gene, which encompasses at least 19 kb and contains ten separated exons, with sizes ranging from 54 to 355 bp [7].
  • 1. Inheritance and expression of T100 suggest that it is determined by an allele at a single locus, and testing of CXB recombinant inbred strains and B6.C minor histocompatibility congenic strains suggest that this locus is linked to H-25 [1].

Anatomical context of Ly9

  • A monoclonal antibody detecting the Ly-9.2 (Lgp 100) cell-membrane alloantigen [5].
  • CD229 (Ly9) lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological synapse [8].
  • The Ly9 glycoprotein is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, which is expressed on the cell surface of B and T lymphocytes [7].
  • Ly 9 is expressed on all thymocytes, peripheral lymphocytes, and on a subpopulation of cells in the bone marrow [9].
  • Normal mouse spleen cells cultured for 4 days in IL-2-containing lymphokine preparations characteristically killed both NK-sensitive (YAC-1) and NK-resistant (EL4, P815) target cells, and mediated significant lysis of both cultured and freshly isolated trophoblast cells (35 to 55%, E/T 100/1) [10].

Associations of Ly9 with chemical compounds

  • More recently, the in vitro effect of roxithromycin against a panel of isolates from AIDS patients has been assessed and it was found that some (but not all) of the inhibitory concentrations, by the T-100 method of Inderlied, are within achievable serum levels [11].

Other interactions of Ly9

  • However, in the BXD strains the linkage between Sap and Ly-9 appears to be quite close [4].
  • The sequence data also support the view that Ly-9 belongs to the subgroup of the Ig superfamily that includes Bcm-1, CD2, and LFA-3 [12].
  • Analysis of RNA showed that Ly-9 expression is lymphocyte specific, as determined by the presence of a single hybridizing 2.4-kb species found only in lymphoid cells [12].
  • The inbred stain distribution, trypsin sensitivity on intact cells, and apparent m.w. of T100 suggest that it is different from Lyt-2 [1].
  • The B cell alloantigen Ly-17.1 is controlled by a gene closely linked to Ly-20 and Ly-9 on chromosome 1 [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ly9

  • Antiserum absorption experiments, two-stage cytotoxicity assays, and results of immunoprecipitations performed after prebinding antibody to radiolabeled thymocytes suggest that some T100 is accessible to antibody on the intact cell surface [1].
  • A cell surface glycoprotein (designated T100) of apparent m.w. 100,000 by SDS-PAGE under reducing and nonreducing conditions was precipitated from NP-40 extracts of surface radiolabeled thymocytes from a variety of inbred strains of mice by the standard noncongenic Lyt-2.1-typing serum [1].
  • A new lymphocyte cell surface alloantigen, provisionally designated Ly 9, is detected by flow microfluorometry(FMF), as an extra specificity in sera from anti-Lyt immunizations [9].
  • Quantitative measurement of Ly 9 immunofluorescence by FMF on heterozygote cells shows that Ly 9 antigen expression is co-dominant and reduced in levels relative to parental homozygote cells [9].


  1. T100: a new murine cell surface glycoprotein detected by anti-Lyt-2.1 serum. Durda, P.J., Boos, S.C., Gottlieb, P.D. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Ly9 (CD229)-deficient mice exhibit T cell defects yet do not share several phenotypic characteristics associated with SLAM- and SAP-deficient mice. Graham, D.B., Bell, M.P., McCausland, M.M., Huntoon, C.J., van Deursen, J., Faubion, W.A., Crotty, S., McKean, D.J. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel human leukocyte cell-surface marker homologous to mouse Ly-9. de la Fuente, M.A., Tovar, V., Villamor, N., Zapater, N., Pizcueta, P., Campo, E., Bosch, J., Engel, P. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Mouse serum amyloid P-component (SAP) levels controlled by a locus on chromosome 1. Mortensen, R.F., Le, P.T., Taylor, B.A. Immunogenetics (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. A monoclonal antibody detecting the Ly-9.2 (Lgp 100) cell-membrane alloantigen. Hogarth, P.M., Craig, J., McKenzie, I.F. Immunogenetics (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Mapping of alpha-spectrin on distal mouse chromosome 1. Seldin, M.F., Morse, H.C., D'Hoostelaere, L., Britten, J.L., Steinberg, A.D. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Gene structure of the mouse leukocyte cell surface molecule Ly9. Tovar, V., de la Fuente, M.A., Pizcueta, P., Bosch, J., Engel, P. Immunogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. CD229 (Ly9) lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological synapse. Romero, X., Zapater, N., Calvo, M., Kalko, S.G., de la Fuente, M.A., Tovar, V., Ockeloen, C., Pizcueta, P., Engel, P. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Ly 9, an alloantigenic marker of lymphocyte differentiation. Mathieson, B.J., Sharrow, S.O., Bottomly, K., Fowlkes, B.J. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Murine trophoblast can be killed by lymphokine-activated killer cells. Drake, B.L., Head, J.R. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Potential role of roxithromycin against the Mycobacterium avium complex. Young, L.S., Bermudez, L.E., Wu, M., Inderlied, C.B. Infection (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for mouse Ly-9. Sandrin, M.S., Gumley, T.P., Henning, M.M., Vaughan, H.A., Gonez, L.J., Trapani, J.A., McKenzie, I.F. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. The B cell alloantigen Ly-17.1 is controlled by a gene closely linked to Ly-20 and Ly-9 on chromosome 1. Davidson, W.F., Morse, H.C., Mathieson, B.J., Kozak, C.A., Shen, F.W. Immunogenetics (1983) [Pubmed]
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